Unit 5 Ethics, Norms & Values: Why “I’m Sorry” Doesn’t Always Translate – Class 9 English Exercise

Why “I’m Sorry” Doesn’t Always Translate is the reading text of class 9 English New course. In this article we have published the exercise of Why “I’m Sorry” Doesn’t Always Translate including grammar and writing section.

Exercise of Why “I’m Sorry” Doesn’t Always Translate

Conceptual Understanding of the Text

There is a significant misunderstanding between Americans and Japanese regarding apologies, and this issue extends beyond just these two cultures. For instance, Americans may not feel moved by apologies from the Toyota CEO following car malfunctions, while Japan was upset when a US submarine commander didn’t immediately apologize for a collision with a Japanese fishing boat.

Apologies hold different rules and meanings in different cultures, leading to confusion. Americans tend to view apologies as an admission of guilt, whereas the Japanese see them as a way to demonstrate a willingness to repair relationships without accepting blame. A survey revealed that US students associated apologies with accepting personal responsibility, while Japanese students apologized more frequently, regardless of personal responsibility.

Apologies play a crucial role in building trust, as shown by Japanese students who were more likely to trust a job applicant who apologized for an incorrect tax return. The differing perspectives on apologies reflect broader cultural disconnects between Eastern and Western societies that are often overlooked in the pursuit of globalization. It is crucial for executives to grasp these cultural differences to effectively utilize apologies in negotiations, conflict resolution, and rebuilding trust. Managers should also pay attention to other cultural nuances that can be easily misunderstood to ensure effective communication.

Glossary of the Text

Admission /ədˈmɪʃ.ən/ – acknowledgement of a fact or truth

Apology /əˈpɒl.ə.dʒi/ – an expression of regret or remorse for a mistake or offense

Attribute /əˈtrɪb.juːt/ – regard as being caused by or belonging to someone or something

Behaviour /bɪˈheɪvjər/ – the way in which one acts or conducts oneself

Blame /bleɪm/ – responsibility for a fault or wrongdoing

Bristled /ˈbrɪs.əld/ – reacted angrily or defensively

Candidate /ˈkæn.dɪ.deɪt/ – a person applying for a job or position

Colliding /kəˈlaɪd.ɪŋ/ – crashing or coming into violent contact with each other

Concept /ˈkɒn.sɛpt/ – an abstract or general idea

Confusion /kənˈfjuː.ʒən/ – lack of understanding or clarity

Consequences /ˈkɒn.sɪ.kwɛns.ɪz/ – results or outcomes of an action or event

Culpability /kʌl.pəˈbɪl.ə.ti/ – responsibility for wrongdoing or blame

Culture /ˈkʌl.tʃər/ – the customs, beliefs, and practices of a particular group of people

Deliberately /dɪˈlɪb.ər.ət.li/ – intentionally; on purpose

Differing /ˈdɪf.ər.ɪŋ/ – varying or differing in some way

Discovered /dɪˈskʌv.ərd/ – found out or learned about something for the first time

East /iːst/ – the direction toward the rising sun

Eagerness /ˈiː.dʒər.nəs/ – enthusiasm or keenness

Effective /ɪˈfɛk.tɪv/ – successful in producing a desired result or effect

Engagement /ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ.mənt/ – involvement or participation

Events /ɪˈvɛnts/ – occurrences or happenings

Explanation /ˌɛks.pləˈneɪ.ʃən/ – a statement or account that makes something clear

Facilitating /fəˈsɪl.ɪ.teɪt.ɪŋ/ – making a process or action easier or smoother

Globalization /ˌɡloʊ.bə.ləˈzeɪ.ʃən/ – the process of global integration and interconnection

Ignored /ɪɡˈnɔːrd/ – paid no attention to; disregarded

Imagine /ɪˈmæ.dʒɪn/ – to form a mental image or concept of something

Inclination /ˌɪn.klɪˈneɪ.ʃən/ – a tendency or preference

Indeed /ɪnˈdid/ – in fact; truly

Inured /ɪˈnjʊərd/ – accustomed to something undesirable

Malfunctioning /mælˈfʌŋk.ʃənɪŋ/ – not working or operating properly

Managers /ˈmæn.ɪ.dʒərz/ – people responsible for controlling or administering an organization or business

Mean /miːn/ – intend to convey or refer to

Misunderstandings /ˌmɪs.ʌn.dərˈstæn.dɪŋz/ – a failure to understand something correctly

Occasion /əˈkeɪ.ʒən/ – a particular time or instance of an event

Oriented /ˈɔːr.iːn.tɪd/ – adjusted or adapted to a particular direction, purpose, or target

Perception /pərˈsɛp.ʃən/ – the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted

Prevalent /ˈprɛv.əl.ənt/ – widespread or common

Pronounced /prəˈnaʊnst/ – strongly marked or evident

Repairing /rɪˈpɛər.ɪŋ/ – fixing or restoring something to its proper condition

Researchers /rɪˈsɜːr.tʃərz/ – people who conduct systematic investigation or study

Resolve /rɪˈzɒlv/ – settle or find a solution to a problem or dispute

Semantics /sɪˈmæn.tɪks/ – the study of meaning in language

Study /ˈstʌd.i/ – a detailed investigation or analysis

Tendency /ˈtɛn.dən.si/ – an inclination or predisposition toward a particular characteristic or behavior

Tool /tuːl/ – an instrument or implement used to carry out a particular function

Transgression /trænˈsɡrɛʃ.ən/ – a violation of a law or rule

Trust /trʌst/ – confidence in or reliance on the integrity, ability, or character of a person or thing

Undergraduates /ˌʌndərˈɡrædʒ.u.ɪts/ – students in a college or university who have not yet received their first degree

Utility /juːˈtɪl.ə.ti/ – usefulness or practicality

Virtually /ˈvɜː.tʃu.ə.li/ – nearly; almost

A. Find the words/phrases from the text for the following meanings. The first letter has been given.

a. t………….. to have difficulty saying something clearly or correctly

⇒ trip over

e………… showing too much emotion

⇒ effusive

b………… became annoyed or offended

⇒ bristled

i………… accustomed to do something

⇒ inured

c……….. the fact of being responsible

⇒ culpability

a…….. … a statement saying that you strongly believe something to be true

⇒ assertion

a………. to say or believe that something is the result of a particular thing

⇒ attribute

s……… connected with the meaning of words and sentences

⇒ semantic

n……… a very slight difference in meaning

⇒ nuances

B. Match the first halves in column A with their endings in column B to make complete sentences.

Americans didn’t show- iv. sympathy to Akio Toyoda’s effusive apologies.

People are accustomed- iii. to an apology in Hong Kong.

Japanese use an apology- v. to repair their damaged relationship.

American participants seemed – i. less interested in second research.

Researchers found- ii. similar patterns in East Asian countries.

C. Answer the following questions.

a. Why did Japan become annoyed with the US submarine commander?

⇒ Japan became annoyed with the US submarine commander because he didn’t immediately apologise after colliding with and sinking a Japanese fishing boat off Hawaii in 2001.

b. How do Americans and Japanese perceive an apology?

⇒ Americans perceive an apology as an admission of wrongdoing, while Japanese see an apology as a way to show eagerness to fix a relationship, without necessarily accepting blame (with no necessary implication of culpability).

c. What, according to the survey, is the average result of an apology in Japanese and American students?

⇒ According to the survey, Japanese students recalled issuing an average of 11.05 apologies in the previous week, whereas US students recalled issuing just 4.51 apologies.

d. What was displayed in a video show?

⇒ The video showed an applicant for an accounting job apologizing for having deliberately filed an incorrect tax return for a prior client.

e. Who were the respondents of the second study?

⇒ The respondents of the second study were undergraduates from both the US and Japan.

D. How can the executives apply an apology?

The executives can apply an apology as a tool for facilitating negotiations, resolving conflicts, and repairing trust by understanding the cultural nuances associated with apologies in different countries. They need to recognize that apologies may be perceived differently based on the cultural context and adjust their approach accordingly.

Grammar I

Present Continuous Tense

Structure: subject + auxiliary be + present participle (-ing)

The present continuous is used to talk about:

– activities at the moment of speaking

– future plans or arrangements

Signal Words:

– now

– tonight

– at the moment

– at present

– right now

– Look!

– Listen!

nowadays and these days – present simple

A. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences.

Be quiet! The baby ……….. (sleep).

⇒ The baby is sleeping.

It ……….. (rain) cats and dogs here in the Monsoon season.

⇒ It rains cats and dogs here in the Monsoon season.

John is busy. He …………. (work) at the moment.

⇒ He is working at the moment.

Please keep quiet, I ………………… (listen) to the radio. You know I …………….. (listen) to the news in the mornings.

⇒ I am listening to the radio. I listen to the news in the mornings.

What time …………. the first bus …………….. (leave) for Kathmandu?

⇒ What time does the first bus leave for Kathmandu?

I usually ……………… (not wear) a scarf, but today I ………….. (wear) one because it’s unusually cold.

⇒ I usually do not wear a scarf, but today I am wearing one because it’s unusually cold.

She …………… (travel) to Dhangadhi next weekend.

⇒ She is travelling to Dhangadhi next weekend.

Pasang is in the classroom at the moment. He …….. (study)History.

⇒ He is studying History.

These days most people ….(write) emails instead of writing letters.

⇒ These days most people write emails instead of writing letters.

What sort of clothes ………… teenagers …………….(wear) nowadays?

⇒ What sort of clothes do teenagers wear nowadays?

What ………… you …………….. (do) tonight? Would you like to come and watch the game?

⇒ What are you doing tonight?

You look worried. What …………..you……………. (think) of?

⇒ What are you thinking of?

She usually drives a taxi. But today, she is …………. (drive) a lorry.

⇒ But today, she is driving a lorry.

These kids (not do) what I’ve asked them to do.

⇒ These kids are not doing what I’ve asked them to do.

Writing I

Pie Chart Interpretation

The pie charts below show information about household expenditure in Nepal in 2004 and 2011. Write an interpretation of the charts making comparisons where necessary.

The pie charts show differences in Nepalese household spending in four categories in 2004 and 2011.

According to the data, food had the largest percentage in the chart in 2004 and 2011, which accounted for 59% and 61.5 % respectively. There was a rise with a minor increase of 1.5%. The second most spent sector of the expenditure in 2004 was non-food items with 28.7 %, but surprisingly it reduced to 22.2 % of the whole expense in 2011. In both 2004 and 2011, education and housing represented the lowest and second-lowest spending categories, respectively. There was a slight increase by 1.5 % and 2.5 % in the expenditures on housing and education and made up 11% and 9.5% respectively.

Overall, food and non-food items remained the largest categories in both years, with housing and education remaining the smallest. The change to the household budget share of non-food was particularly noticeable.