Introduction to Cumulative Record
The student’s cumulative record is the compilation of information maintained in the school for the students. It contains objectives, factual and professional information regarding a student’s academic progress, his mid-term, final marks, attendance and adaptation. Cumulative record folder has been defined by some authors as a reservoir for important data collection about a person all through the period of his school life. Others see it as a summary of the child’s school history and in addition a valuable resource material for the developmental patterns, strengths, weaknesses, problems, needs and experiences of a child to be understood. Specifically, it is a record of student’s personal, social and psychological adjustment, special interest, special activities developed through many years.
The student’s cumulative record is a key tool in supporting student’s transactions. For instance, when a student moves from one school to another, it is expected that the cumulative record will go alongside the student. This cumulative record consists of a standard folder formatted for recording basic information about a student.
Why Every Student Should have a Cumulative Record
The information in the cumulative record is of importance to professionals like the Counsellors, Educational Administrators for planning and developing the appropriate educational programs. It assists the counsellors and teachers to understand the strength of the students’ better It assists the counsellors to know where support is needed for the students yearly. The cumulative record is also valuable for assisting the students to have a successful transition to another school and promotion to another class. Cumulative records which could be stored in an electronic or hard copy can contain information affecting the decisions made about the student’s education.
Information Should be in the Cumulative Folder
The contents of the Cumulative Record include:
- Data identification: Under this, the following information is seen; students, name, sex or gender, date of birth and student’s passport photograph.
- Information on Health: This gives on any sickness suffered by the child, general state of the child’s health, physical defect or disabilities, the rate of visiting hospitals and clinics, results of medical examination with their dates.
- Family or home history: Such information as follows are given; home address, telephone number of parents, parents’ full names or guardians’ full names, the parent marital status whether divorced, separated, deceased, parents/guardian occupation, the place of work of parents/guardians, the birth order, that is the position of the child in the family, religion, languages or main language of the child, pocket money or allowances, names of other parents/ guardians who may have custody orders permit or restricting access to the child, level of parents relationship with the school.
- Student/child relative standing in various subject areas over a period of the academic year: This includes the name of tests, date the test was taken, score and score interpretation. In addition, reports on student’s achievement term progress.
- Data on student personality or personality data: Under this, the following are provided, checklists on the students’ attitude to themselves, attitude to other people and work or academic activities or general school activities.
- Vocational Guidance: This includes the student’s preference for a particular career or the type of vocation that the student wants to pursue, the parents’ inclination to a particular vocation, the career officer or counsellors or teacher’s career recommendation. Actions agreed on education, employment, skill acquisition among others.
- School history: Here such information is seen, the name of the previous school attended by the child, date of admission and date of leaving school, school attendance records, reasons for absenteeism if any, discipline records.
- Records of diagnostic results and records of modifications at the end of each term are provided. Other relevant assessments include; athletics records, home influences and cooperation, extracurricular activities. Information that should not be included in the cumulative record folders are:
- Screen tools Scores: scores that access readiness for formal learning like early years’ evaluation.
- Personal Counselling notes regarding the students.
- Information related to the students’ motivation at a much younger age. Such counselling notes should be stored separately by the counsellor.
The Use of Cumulative Record Folder by Counsellor
- The information provided in the cumulative record folder is used to the advantage of the child. Such information paves way for better counselling, more understanding, better communication and better relationship with the child. It also makes for more acceptance and support for the child.
- The counsellors ensure that the content of the cumulative record is updated annually. The counsellor should collect, maintain and release records when need be.
- The Counsellor should keep records in a safe secure environment and are protected against accidental destruction and loss.
- The counsellor should not give unauthorized persons, access to the records. Only those involved in educational services or supports should have access.
- The counsellor is expected to use the information on the folder to provide educational services and support to the students.
- Owing to the present “934” or “6334” system of education which requires the cumulative record folder to be fully operative, the counsellor is expected to maintain or keep to the rule by making effective use of the information on the folder.
Use of Cumulative Record
- Determination of student’s achievement as compared with his abilities: The information on school marks provide the basis for the prediction of a student’s future achievement. With that the determination of students who are above or below; their individual attention is made possible.
- Identification of students who are unable or too weak to perform certain functions in the school. This information is gotten from the health records, where such information, physical examination, history of illness, weight and height chart are given. Hence school schedules may be modified in relation to the results of the physical examination. Also, a history of illness provides reasons for a child not having stamina, poor work habits, temperaments, other irregularities. Also, the records on referral services could be offered by the counsellor.
- Identification of a child’s strength invocation and the child’s readiness to assimilate. This could be achieved by the records kept on performance standardized tests, like reading, practical activities, dexterity and process evaluation.
- Provision and knowledge of unknown information. The request for the biodata of the child and parents makes it possible for the student to search for biodata information and master them. Information on family and social background like mental status, father’s occupation, number of children, religious preference, citizenship status, language status, and use of leisure are important.
- Provisional identification of the students- like records in the participation of the students in extra-curriculum paves way for students to be identified and also for them to have an identity. This also helps to nurture special talents and abilities.
- Insight on the dependability of student records on attendance makes it possible for the counsellor to have insight on how dependable the student is and even the dependability of the parent. It will also help link school achievement to absenteeism.
- The anecdotal records kept by the counsellors are used for guidance and diagnostic purposes. Even for personal counselling, basis for self-study analysis for the child. Anecdotal Record is the overall picture of a student showing his development over a period of years. They are aspects of observation by counsellors or teachers.
- The record describes a student sample behaviour in a given event/situation,
a student behaviour not as interpreted by the counsellor. Such records which are presented to the student in a non-threatening situation, or using projective methods like incomplete stories, incomplete sentences may help to reveal some facts about the student.
- Development of personality characteristics over a period of years. This is achieved by using a personality rating.
- Record on work experience helps students in their vocational thinking.
- Counsellors can help students in upper grades to make choices on future educational plans, based on records on educational plans.
- Referring to the records on counselling notes makes it possible for counsellors to adopt or adapt procedures used by other counsellors in solving similar problems when need be.
- Identification of some subject matter difficulties and students’ special interest
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