Topic Sentence, Controlling Ideas and Concluding Sentence for Paragraph and Essay Writing

Topic Sentence and Controlling Idea

A topic sentence is the most important sentence in which the main idea of the paragraph is stated. Other sentences relate to this main idea. As stated earlier the paragraphs usually starts with a topic sentence, but not always. The topic sentence generally composed of two parts:


a) the topic itself (sometimes called subject)

b) The controlling idea.

The topic tells the reader who or what the paragraph is about. The controlling ideas shows the direction the paragraph will take. it tells what kind of information you will give about the topic in your paragraph.

To put is another way, a topic sentence controls all the other sentences in a paragraph. It states the topic ((main idea and the focus (main emphasis) of the paragraph.

A Good Topic Sentence

– states the topic of the paragraph

– Identifies the focus

Some examples of topic sentences:

  1. There are many reasons why pollution in Kathmandu is the worst in the world.
Here, the topic is “pollution in Kathmandu is the worst in the world”. This tells the readers the paragraph will be about pollution in Kathmandu being the worst in the world. And, the controlling idea is “Many Reasons.” This focuses on the topic and tells the reader that the paragraph will give information about the same reason that makes pollution in Kathmandu the worst in the world. In the following sentences, the topic is in boldface, and the controlling ideas are underlined.
  1. Jugging provides many healthful benefits.
  2. To be an effective teacher requires certain characteristics.
  3. there are many possible contributing factors to global warmings.
  4. Good speakers often make great leaders.
  5. Dogs make wonderful pets because they help you to be live longer.
  6. Violence against women and girls may be prevented by improved education.
  7. Graduating from high school is important for many different reasons.

Parts of a Topic Sentence

  • A topic sentence tells what the main idea of the paragraph will be. We call this the ‘subject‘ of the paragraph.
  • A topic sentence tells what the author is going to say about the subject. We call this the ‘controlling idea’ of the paragraph.
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Writing a Concluding Sentence

When you have finished the body of your paragraph, you are set to write a strong concluding sentence  that reminds the readers again of the topic and limiting statement and makes some final point. A well written concluding sentence gives your reader one last reason to have confidence in what they have just read.

Here are some points to help you write an effective concluding sentence:

  1. Use a connector: Transitional words such as ‘finally, however, despite, etc.. (see above) drive your readers towards your final point.
  2. Restate your topic sentence: Clearly link your final sentence to the topic. You may restate your topic and limiting statement again.
  3. Expand the thought: Make a final point above your topic, using any of the following ideas:  

– Express an emotion

– give a judgement or opinion

– Ask a related question

– Make a reflective statement ( tell how your topic has affected your behavior or outlook of life) 

Essential of A Good Paragraph

Essentials of a good paragraph