Summary & Exercise of Poetry [Literature Development] Grade - 12

Summary & Exercise of Poetry [Literature Development] Grade – 12

A DAY BY EMILY DICKINSON

In the “A Day” poem, Dickinson, through the use of brilliant imagery and symbols, describes a beautiful day that leads children from innocence to experience. This describes the rising of the sun, what happens after it rises, and what happens after the sun sets. A thin ribbon of light descends from above the steeple, altering its hue from blue to purple. Upon hearing of the sun rising, the news spreads or the light rays travel like squirrels running to get away. 

Sunlight reveals the black hills and a bobolink, a tiny American bird, sings in the lovely morning. When the sun shines, it makes everything and everyone happy and comfortable. In order to ensure that the sun will rise with lovely and wonderful rays, the speaker speaks to himself. Sunrise is confirmed by magnificent scenery, pristine hills, and the singing of the bobolink. 

The speaker lacks confidence in his description of the sunset. When the sun goes down, the sky begins to purr, and it continues to purr until the sky is totally black. There is a golden tint to the boys and girls as they return to their refuge. The grey-suited caretaker/father waits for the children to return. He opens the gate and allows the youngsters in, allowing additional flocks to enter their homes.

Main Theme

A day poem deals with the theme of birth and death. Here, the rising sun symbolizes birth and the sunset symbolizes death. As soon as a child is born, he/she grows up very fast and gradually starts to understand various responsibilities, just like we get busy during the day. So, one can say that the most important theme of the poem is the journey of life from birth to death. Death and immortality are the main themes that are thoroughly discussed in this poem. 

Literary Devices

Literary devices like Alliteration/Symbol/Metaphor/Simile/Personification are also used in this poem. Let’s discuss them thoroughly.

Symbolism: The poem as a whole represents the passage from life to death. The poet infers human behaviours connected with life and death with each verse. 

Metaphor: She employs a number of clear analogies to create sympathetic images. She refers to sun rays as “ribbons” in verse I, line 2. In verse 3, line 3, she refers to the same sun rays as “Yellow lads and girls.” In verse 4, line 2, the “Dominie in gray” represents “God” or a religious person, while “flock” alludes to people. Finally, in stanza 4, line 3, “evening bars” is a metaphor for the conclusion of a day or the end of life. 

Simile: In verse 1, line 4, the “news” of dawn spreads with the pace of a squirrel’s run, which is an example of simile. 

Personification: In “A Day,” another poetic technique is personification. It occurs in verse I, line 3, where “Steeples,” like humans, swim; and in stanza 2, line 2, where “hills,” like ladies, remove their “bonnets.” 

Alliteration occurs in stanza I, line 3, with the repeat of the “s” sound; it also appears in stanza 2, line 2, with the predominant “b” sound. 

Interpretation

According to the poet, she observes how the Sun rises in the first verse, as well as the changing conditions that follow from the Sun’s rising. She compared the rays of the sun with one ribbon at a time. She likens the beams of the sun to the ribbon, and says, “the rays of the sun are like the ribbon.” The poet wrote the ribbon. When one speaks to a rise, however, it applies in this instance. In this case, the metaphor is in use.

When she observed that the sunlight was scattered over the sky, she concluded that the rays looked like ribbons. The church’s spire took on a deeper shade of violet as a result of the sunlight striking it. Tall structures that are often seen in churches are known as steeples. It had the color of amethyst and seemed to be made of it. A purple coloured gemstone that is extremely valuable is known as amethyst. When the squirrels run, it doesn’t take long for the news to spread that the sun has risen. With the sunrise, the hills were revealed as if they had removed their bonnets. A songbird from the United States known as the “bubbling.”The duo started singing their morning hymn, as they got dressed. In the poet’s view, the sun was behind all that had occurred. Although this good feeling was brought about by the sun, in the end, it was the sun that caused it.

Then, of course, there is the beauty of nature. This beautiful image represents the concept that everything moves at breakneck speed when the sun rises. Because we have to rush from the moment we get up, this symbolizes how fast-paced our life is. The wonder of the rising sun is brought to life by the sun. And this serves as a representation of the starting point of anything.

We don’t know how she created the scenario in the third stanza. At this time, there were many little yellow boys and girls ascending toward the other side or dominating in gray. Her use of the phrase “how the sun sets” in these lines clarifies her no-idea about how the sun sets. At dusk, the skies become a lighter shade of red, as do the faces of the children who are playing outside. When this happens, a Dominion moves in to gather up the children and take them back to their houses.

At sunset, the clouds in the western sky have a broad spectrum of orange, yellow, and purple hues, and they seem to be in motion. The poet recalls how children often go up and down stairs while they play. These kids are then taken away by a Domini at night’s end. The word “domini,” which means “teachers,” is derived from “dominus,” which means “lord” in Latin. It is the darkness of the night that signifies the end of the day in a figurative sense.

While some may take the color gray as meaning that a lovely day has ended, or that the poet does not know when the sun will set, I choose to see it as a symbol of the end of a day, reminding me that the poet does not know when the sun will set. Because nobody knows what happens after death, this is called the Great Unknown. Sunrise is the beginning of life and sunset is the end of life, yet they happen at the same time. This is the most significant part of the poem, and I’m sure you’ve learned something new.

Conclusion

The poem starts with the speaker explaining how the sun rises and what happens thereafter in a nice manner. The first and second lines of the poem depict the speaker’s delight at witnessing steeples change colour after sunrise, birds, hills, and the rising sun itself. She explains the items in such a way that they reflect the innocence of a kid in terms of how he or she views the universe.

The speaker discusses the sun setting in the poem’s third and fourth stanzas. She said that she had no idea how it worked. She is unable to provide an explanation due to a lack of information. This represents the immobility that comes with death. It also demonstrates how little people really know about dying. Despite this, the speaker claims that the sky becomes purple when the sun goes down, and it’s totally black when the light comes up. The youngsters, according to the speaker, climbed up the stile/ladder to cross it, and when they got to the other side, their instructor put up the nighttime bar and led them away.

Dickinson discusses a wonderful day that brings children from innocence to experience in her poem “A Day” through the use of bright imagery and metaphors. Emily Dickinson’s ‘A Day’ is a well-known nineteenth-century metaphysical poem, renowned for its double meanings and cerebral allusions. ‘A Day is a literal term that refers to sunrise and sunset. It also describes, in a figurative sense, the passage from life to death. Additionally, the poem has a kid narrator whose innocent and certain tone evokes the splendour of daybreak. 

Main Idea

A Day Poem by Emily Dickinson is written in lines of two words or less. She also utilized odd capitalization and punctuation, as well as what we would call slant rhymes. She also used hyphens (–) to let the reader have some pause or break so that they could ponder the context a bit. All these tricks of hers have made this poem very interesting for the readers

Understanding The Text

How does the poet describe the morning sun in the first stanza?

= The poet describes the sun as a sign of happiness. She describes the rising sun as the first gorgeous, golden sunbeams stretch about like ribbons. The sun rays were like a pattern of ribbons which were untied one at a time. Everything was vivid and apparent. It turned the steeple colour into amethyst. Then, the gloomy darkness begins to change colour as soon as the sun’s brilliant fire emerges. As a result, the news of the appearance of the sun spreads rapidly, like the pace of squirrels.

What does the line The news like squirrels ran mean?

= The meaning of the line ‘The news like squirrels ran is that the pace of the spread of the news of sunrise was so quick, as it is like the squirrel’s speed. Squirrels are faster-running creatures. The light of the sun spreads rapidly. That is why the poet used the metaphor of ‘The news like squirrels ran to indicate that the news of sunrise was faster than the speed of squirrels.

What do you understand by the line The hills untied their bonnets?

= The hills are in the cap (bonnet) of darkness before the sun rises. Bonnets mean a special type of hat which can be tied under the chin. Before sunrise, the hills seemed darker and gloomier as they were not happy. But as soon as the sun emerges and the sun rays fall on hills, they become so happy and excited. They unveil their greenery and beauty by removing their bonnets. All hills appear lovely in excellent green color after sunrise. The hills are characterized as they loosen their caps like ladies. Hence, the hills seem to be removing their hats in a frenzied manner, after sunrise is what the above phrase means.

Is the speaker watching the morning sun? Why? Why not?

= I have some logic to say that the speaker is not watching the morning sun.  ‘I’ll tell you how the Sun rose somehow means that the speaker has witnessed the sun rise and the changes following the sun rise, and at the present moment he is describing what he saw. But, it possibly does not mean he is watching the sun at the moment. Speaker is not doing the real-time narration of the morning sun. That is why we can say the speaker is not watching the morning sun at that time.

How does the sun set?

The speaker is really unknown to the sunset. All he knows is that the sun goes away taking all the happiness, joy and leaves the unhappy and gloomy dark when it sets, he doesn’t know where. The slowly turning purple and yellow hues signal the sun’s setting, but since he is unclear, he doesn’t know how exactly the sun set.

Reference To The Context

What, according to the speaker, is a day?

= Emily Dickinson’s ‘A Day’ is a lyrical poem that describes dawn and sunset, where day is symbolized as life. A day is life, where sun rise is the birth, and setting of the sun is compared with death.  It also depicts the beauty of life and the uncertainty of death in a philosophical sense. Sunrise and sunset are literally described in ‘A Day.’ It further describes the journey from life to death in a metaphorical way.

What purpose does the hyphen in the first line serve in the poem?

= Hyphen(–) is used in poetry to indicate a break. In this poem, Emily Dickenson innovatively utilizes this punctuation mark. She is using hyphens if she does not find the words for profound feelings, to give readers the power of silence in some circumstances, to imagine, to fill the missing word, or she is allowing the readers to take some time to ponder on the context by themselves.

What makes this poem lyrical and sonorous? Discuss.

= Emily has used her magic tricks to make this poem lyrical, sonorous and lovely. Written in the first-person narrative, the poem is lyrical poetry in the sense that it conveys personal feelings or emotions that the author has. The poetic persona is indicated by the use of the initial pronoun “I” in lyrical poetry. This poem is quite brief, and the author is conveying her own personal experience of seeing the dawn in this piece of writing. Sonorous refers to being full of sound and densely packed with rhymes or phrases. There are a variety of factors that contribute to the musical and melodic quality of a poem. This poem’s musicality is enhanced by the use of sound techniques such as alliteration, assonance, rhyme, and rhythm.

Who is the target audience of the speaker? Why?

= In this poem, Children and Adults both are the target audience of the speaker. The readers are shown the world as viewed by an innocent kid. Speaker is telling his friends, “I will tell you how the sun rose”. So, We may argue that the intended audience consists of kids who have lost the opportunity to see the sun rising when they wake up late in the morning. 

When we look at the poem from a philosophical point of view, the whole human race is also the intended audience. Sunrise is the beginning of life, daytime activities are a trip through life, and sundown is the end of life. However, the final result is a little mysterious.

The poem seems to describe a day for children. How would the adult people respond to this poem? Discuss this poem with your parents/guardians and write the answer based on their responses.

= The poem seems to describe a day for children. But, this poem is also suitable for adult people. This poem is a literal description of the dawn, as well as the events that occur between sunrise and sundown. For children, the direct meaning of the poem is applicable but for adults, the metaphysical meaning of this poem makes more sense. To be more precise, the poem speaks about the passage from life to death in a metaphysical sense. There is enthusiasm at the beginning of life, a squirrel racing like a life and a strange conclusion to a life in this poem.

Reference Beyond The Text

Observe your surroundings one fine morning and write a poem based on your own experience.

= You can write a Poem on your own. I am not good at writing poems. Here is just a small verse anyways.

As the night draws to a close,

Red-orange light begins to emancipate itself…

Purple and blue with a reddish-orange hue.

Amazing beauty is revealed…

It’s as though the earth has been struck by gold ribbons.

This is a beautiful scene with a ray of hope in…

Let’s forget about last night.

We begin each new day with an amazing sight.

Heart is enjoying for a day start like this,

The trip begins with a fresh desire and wish,

Write a personal essay on A Day in the School. 

= Our lives are filled with numerous experiences, yet we don’t recall them all. No day could be more important and precious to me than the first day in school. I started school when I was six years old. I believe it was April. I was a little child back then. 

My first day of school is still fresh in my mind. “Child Academy” is how I refer to my school. After my mother dropped me off at school, one of the teachers led me to the classroom. As I walked inside the classroom, I was hesitant and timid, but the teacher was extremely kind. In an instant, she had me sitting on the front bench. Three or four guys rushed up and shook my hand right away. I was reassured. After a few minutes of rummaging around, I found a copy of a math textbook and began to perform the sums. I had a couple more kids come up to me after the session finished and introduce themselves. Friendships in school were a wonderful experience. By 1 p.m., the school day was finished. My father took me home.


EVERY MORNING I WAKE

Every Morning I Wake is an extract from Under the Milk Wood. In this poem, Thomas prays to the magnificent God to have mercy on ordinary inhabitants living under the Milk Wood. While invoking God in this poem, the speaker begs for his or her benevolence for the people of Milk Wood, a little hamlet located under Milk Wood. Many people call this poem a sunset poem or a prayer poem. This poem serves as a strong reminder that nothing compares to God. God is the only creator of the cosmos. In one verse, it expresses the essence of all prayers. We, humans, are nothing but just a ball of cartilage and collagen.

Brief Summary

In this poem Every morning, a devoted follower of God who is fully aware of God’s grandeur rises from his or her bed and prays to God for compassion for all creatures. God may not be physically present on our planet, yet God has the ability to direct their actions from afar. God created everything on Earth and will ultimately destroy everything on Earth. There are many individuals in the world who are born only for the purpose of dying and leaving nothing behind. All of us will die as a result of our mortal condition, but God’s blessings will make our stay here meaningful. This poem is a plea to the almighty God written by a little creature known as a human, and it is addressed to him. As a consequence, the speaker asks God for mercy on their behalf. The speaker is a believer in the need to pray for the well-being of all creatures.

Stanza by Stanza Explanation

In the poem “Every Morning I wake”, the poet says these lines in the first stanza.

Every morning when I wake,

Dear Lord, a little prayer I make,

O please do keep Thy loving eye

On all poor creatures born to die

From these lines, the speaker is asking God to love him/them forever. He not only prays to god for the protection of own but also for all innocent creatures in the world.

And every evening at sun-down

I ask a blessing on the town,

For whether we last the night or no

I’m sure it is always touch-and-go.

In these lines, the speaker expresses the uncertainty of life and death. He is unsure if the night is the last night of city inhabitants or not, but he always prays the almighty will make everything good and protect them from any possible harm. . The speaker prays to God before going to bed, but he doesn’t know whether he’ll see them again in the morning, so he asks for God to bless them.  Every night’s benefits from God enable us to see them the next day.

We are not wholly bad or good

Who live our lives under Milk Wood,

And Thou, I know, wilt be the first

To see our best side, not our worst.

In the process of living our daily lives, we may be nice or terrible, but only God is aware of our best selves. In this way, the speaker kneels before God, pleading for him to preserve them alive till morning. In Particular, the speaker represents Milk wood town and makes sure that they are not totally bad or totally good. People might judge them in their own way; it all depends on someone’s perspective on how s/he judges others. But the speaker seems optimistic that the god knows the best side of the inhabitants of milk down. 

O let us see another day!

Bless us all this night, I pray,

And to the sun we all will bow

And say, good-bye but just for now!

Last stanza represents the ending lines of their prayers. Speaker prays that the night will be down soon and the delightful sun will re-appear. Night is used as the imagery in this poem. It points to the pains, stress and undelightful days of the inhabitants of the town or the speaker himself. And he hopes for the Almighty’s help in their bad days. Last GoodBye for now, represents the ending of prayer. This time, the speaker says his or her goodbyes, but he or she knows they won’t be permanent.

Understanding The Text

Answer the following questions.

When does the speaker pray to the Lord?

= The speaker prays to the Lord in the morning time and evening time.

What does the speaker pray for?

= The speaker prays for the grace, sympathy and protection from the god to the residents of Milk wood.

Who are the poor creatures? Why does the speaker call them poor creatures?

= Poor creatures actually mean all the innocent creatures that are on planet earth. However, in the prayer, the speaker is referring to the residents of Milk Wood as poor creatures. They are referred to as “poor animals” by the speaker since they are made up of “bone and flesh” and are destined to die.

What does Milk Wood sound like? A type of wood or a place? Why?

= A single proper noun referring to a single place does not need an article. Since it is not a specific kind of wood, an article such as an or a is not used. Milk Wood seems like a place since there isn’t any article preceding this phrase.

Why do the inhabitants of Milk Wood bow to the setting sun but just for now?

 = Milk Wood’s residents make a bow to the setting sun as a way of saying farewell for the time being. The next morning, they expect to see the sun blazing. They hope to see another day thanks to the goodness of God and the warmth of the Sun.

Reference To The Context

Discuss Every Morning When I Wake as a Prayer to God.

=  Dylan Thomas “Every Morning When I Wake” is a prayer poem.  In a prayer poem, the speaker asks God for blessings and guidance throughout his life and the lives of all human types and animals. “Dear Lord, a small prayer I make/O please do keep Thy loving eye/on all poor creatures born to die,” from these lines we can say the speaker is praying to God. The speaker is pleading with God to maintain his loving gaze on all of creation and to shower blessings on them.

Why does the speaker make a prayer to God, but not to a king, a billionaire or a scientist?

= The speaker knows well that none can be above god. Because God is the ultimate entity, the source of all creation, and the focus of all religious belief, the speaker offers a prayer to Him. He has all three attributes: power, knowledge, and actuality. A king is crowned because of God, a scientist learns new things because of God, and a millionaire is wealthy because of God. They are unable to safeguard us in the same way that God does. His existence is holy; He makes us and rescues us; We love Him; We trust Him; and He directs us in a straight and narrow way. God has authority over everyone and everything, even them. No matter how strong, wealthy, or knowledgeable someone is, they can never be compared to God. That is why we worship him in order to get his forgiveness and benefits.  All humans, whether they are kings, millionaires, or scientists, are composed of bone and flesh and are destined to die. A monarch, a millionaire, or a scientist are all just transient beings. That’s why the speaker prays to the god.

How does the poet highlight the magnificence of God?

= The poet highlights God’s greatness by pointing out that he watches over and cares for all of creation from the moment they are born until they die. The speaker knows well that none can be above god. Because God is the ultimate entity, the source of all creation, and the focus of all religious belief, the speaker offers a prayer to Him. He has all three attributes: power, knowledge, and actuality. Poet mentions that God guards us against the unknown and that He is the only ultimate being who understands our best interests. 

How does the rhyme scheme of the poem reinforce its message?

= The rhyme pattern used throughout the poem is AABB. There’s an organized structure to this poem’s rhymes, due to the usage of AABB rhyme scheme. In the eyes of God, the speaker is a helpless child. It conveys a childlike quality due to its austere design. Every second line of every verse rhymes with the previous one. Such rhymes have the effect of making a song more enjoyable to listen to. In order to make a pure plea to God, most prayer poems use this rhyme pattern. Line 1 rhymes with line 1 in the AABB rhyming scheme, while line 3 rhymes with line 4 in the same scheme. 

Reference Beyond The Text

Does God exist? Give your opinion.

= Yes, of course, I am a theist and I believe in God. Also, if you’re looking for God, don’t hurry up; God is already inside of you. As far as I’m concerned, I believe in God since I’ve received everything I asked for thus far. Maintain a positive outlook and continue to do good acts, since God is keeping eyes on your every move and will certainly reward you for them.

We can’t see God, but we may witness his influence in our daily lives. God’s existence is unquestionable, just as radiation is. “Does God exist?” is the most significant issue that has been debated since the dawn of civilization. But just because we can’t feel or see something doesn’t imply it doesn’t exist. Things that come as a surprise and work miraculously serve as evidence that God exists. Sixth-sense users are inclined to believe in the presence of a higher power. Regardless of whether or not some people reject the existence of God, I believe in him. Through the use of our five senses, we have become used to feeling and experiencing the physical world. Some believe God doesn’t exist since no one has seen Him bodily yet or because our sensory senses don’t detect his existence. Still I believe in him.

In his Epistle to the author of the book, The Three Impostors (1768), Voltaire says, Even if God didn’t exist, it would be necessary to invent him. Write an essay highlighting the importance of God in society.

= Civilized societies are made out of decent people. As a result, even if God doesn’t exist, it’s essential to construct an ideal version of his existence.

Most individuals who believe in the existence of a soul after death also believe in God. It follows that God is required for a good society, or else He must be created. The souls of those who live their lives in accordance with moral principles and ideals after death rest quietly in the presence of God. People continue to have this idea because of their conviction in God’s existence. Without God, the world would be a tumultuous mess. If God didn’t exist, we’d still have to make him up. Voltaire, a French philosopher of the 18th century, articulated this idea in his work “The Three Imposters (1768)” To be really happy, people must have faith in a higher power-God. He is supremely intelligent, incredibly powerful, and a force behind all of nature’s rules. Every single individual in every single culture has to have faith in Him.

A civilized society requires smooth operations. The ultimate creator has maintained our planet’s natural splendor. He instructs us on letting go of things like vengeance, greed, passion, and a host of other negative emotions. People’s ideas and ideals shape a society’s civilization. Before committing any crime, people are motivated by the dread of God. God represents all of our society’s good aspects, while evil represents all of our society’s bad aspects. A sense of order may be found here. If they don’t repent of the sins they do here, they’ll spend eternity in purgatory. It instills in us moral qualities such as humanity, kindness, love, and compassion. People don’t perform wicked things because they are afraid of God. God directs us in the proper direction. People are still able to live in harmony and at peace with one another. If there is no God, then people will die, property will be damaged, and there will be devastation.

 

I WAS MY OWN ROUTE  

 In “I Was My Own Route,” the speaker Julia de Burgos, a radical feminist rejects the male ideology of determining female’s life and journey in the traditional paths. She associates thoughts of male to gender inequality and their prejudices for females. 

In the first stanza, the speaker makes it clear that there was a difference between what was wanted of her and what she was. She rejects patriarchal ideology and wishes to kiss a new path of her own, not indulging in the traditional game of hide and seek. Through this, she talks about her own personal freedom and liberation of women. 

She is looking for fresh ways to navigate her journey, choosing her own path, not on the path predetermined or set path by male members of the society. She mocks on these paths and selects a new route of her own choice. This poem makes agenda of gender discrimination as a response to the social inequality that existed at the contemporary time as articulated by Julia de Burgos.

In the second stanza, the speaker finds many male determined social norms as obstacles in her newly forwarded route but she overcomes all limitations or old determined feet. She says how she was thrown back to perceive the old traditional path with her broken heart with old blogs. 

In the 3rd stanza, the speaker struggles a lot with a feeling of liberation to balance her own life for walking in the new and truthful path of life. She wants to go far away in the horizons and obtain all sorts of liberation which the male members of the society have already perceived. Therefore, she embraces several new paths to perceive all sorts of freedom and joy in life.

In the 4th stanza, the persona finds her in an already set situation where there is no any history, future, edges and other things except the world and restrictions of men and females under the shadows of males. Patriarchy has put several boundaries for the women to limit them into four walls of the house. She finds her present painful, surrounded by several obstacles and traditions formulated by patriarchal society. It projects such an earth where it seems no hope for women far and far. 

In the 5th stanza, the speaker expresses to her what she was and what the male members of the community wanted me to be. Then, she says that she was everything in herself as she attempts a lot to obtain what she desires to be. 

In the last or 6th stanza, the speaker turns back to the first stanza and expresses her own attempt to be different from what patriarchal society wanted her to be. Disappointing future makes her very sad and she wills to overcome painful circumstances of her life though it seems troublesome. 

Above all, the poem teaches us the moral that both men and women are the members of the same society and they equally require freedom, liberation, independence etc. in their life and they should be allowed to pursue their own paths, not patriarchal society-determined paths.

Main Theme of the Poem

de Burgos’ poem ‘I was My Own Route’ projects the personal freedom and liberation of women. Through this, she also rejects male ideology of determining a female’s life and journey in the traditional paths. She associates thoughts of male to gender inequality and their prejudices for females. She is looking for a fresh path to navigate her own journey, choosing her own choice of path. She favors freedom and liberation of women. This poem justifies that both a male and a female are equally significant. Therefore, her life should not be subjected to the beliefs of others since she is provided the same fundamental rights as males in the constitution. 

Main Summary

A precursor to the contemporary Latina/o writers, de Burgos, in her poem I was my Own Route, depicts how the women are burdened with the patriarchal ideologies from the past. Therefore, de Burgos urges the women to detach themselves from the past so as to locate their identity within. The poem focuses on the personal freedom and liberation of women. She is looking for fresh ways to navigate her journey, choosing her own path. This poem makes agenda of gender discrimination as a response to the social inequality that existed at the time as articulated by Julia de Burgos (1938).

In her home nation, the United States, she tells about her life as an oppressed woman. A lady of African origin, she was interested in identifying her own individuality and her ambitions. She desired equal opportunities, privileges, and advantages, and also demanded that these equalities must be present in this sexist and unequal society.

This poem proves that a woman should never feel less important than men or that her life should be subject to the beliefs of others, since she is not ruled by society. As the poem goes on to say, he shouldn’t play “hide and seek” with her soul. Rather, she has to keep going, even if there are barriers.

This poem is thoughtful, with a rebellious nature, as the author expresses a dislike for traditional societal norms. She alone can choose who she is and what she must accomplish.

Interpretation 

Presented as a woman refusing to be defined by men, the words highlight the topic of women’s liberation as they seek their freedom in the place where they find themselves in society.

She placed her feet firmly on the ground, and followed no set route, but selected her own way, her own path. She moved away from the game of portraying the role herself to “kiss the new routes.”

In an era when social norms limited the limits of women’s behavior, the poem itself recalls how it overcame the frantic flapping of old feet, relating at every step of the trip to the limitations imposed on women. She explains in a heart-broken picture how to throw back her with the old logs that represent the obstacles she is willing to overcome, as painful the process may be.

Here the poetic person frees herself from the tree, from the trunks that have picked her up, detaches herself from the limb and moves away from all that has been taught. That moves away from this excellent domesticating horizon.

As “a feeling of freedom” emerges, it begins to see a change in her face that comes from her inner emotions and is followed by “the kiss of the new routes” (the kiss of the new paths). It symbolizes a new balance in life and reality.

The poet is completely aware of who she is, what she represents, and where she wants to go. It looks like a “bud” growing from the earth. It has now its own set of roots, a history which started on soils with little promise for a future. Men have put boundaries on soils without limits. She struck the ground up to plant her own roots, overcome obstacles and trace her way to be herself.

Understanding The Text

Why did the speaker try to be the way men wanted her to be? 

The speaker tried to be the way men wanted her to be because she wanted to see what the male expected her to be like and how they will behave due to their hegemonic male concept. 

What do you understand by her feet ‘would not accept walking backwards’? 

By her feet ‘would not accept walking backward! We mean that she was not ready to accept the inferior concept of females by males, rather she wanted to race like male with equal food for the ultimate goal of liberation and equality.

Who are the old guards? Why did they grow desperate? 

The old guards are the traditional people preoccupied with patriarchal concepts. These people grow desperate as they find the poetess uplifting the lifestyles of poor people and is working for the emancipation of the people. 

How did the speaker have a feeling of intimate liberation’? 

The speaker had a feeling of intimate liberation’ as she had crossed the barrier of patriarchal society and kissed a new path of liberation rejecting the old one predetermined by men. 

Why did the desire to follow men warp in her? 

The desire to follow men wraps in her because of patriarchal society and its norms prevailed in the society. She wants to feel liberation and pleasure but she is forced to follow traditional concepts and ideas predetermined by men.

Reference To The Context 

What does the speaker mean when she says she was playing a game of hide and seek with her being’? When the speaker says she was playing a game of hide and seek with her being in the 3rd line of the first stanza and once more at the end of the poem, she means to show her rebellious nature and rejection of male ideology which limits females in the surrounding of four walls. It further means to state that she needs liberation to escape from the gender stereotype image of females and choose the route of her own choice. 

Why, in your view, was her back ripped by the old guards as she was advancing forward? 

The old guards put many obstacles, traditions, norms, and threats of patriarchal ideology as she was advancing forward as a result her back was ripped. Here, the old guards refer to old traditions, cultures, norms and patriarchy determined values but she requires liberation and race in a journey of freedom. Thus, restrictions, hindrances, obstacles, difficulties and blockades created by the old guards in the society make her back ripped and suffer a lot.

What, according to the speaker, did it feel like to be free? 

According to the speaker, to be free means to fly like a bird without any social restrictions of male restrictions. It means to walk and feel like male in society and to receive long awaited liberation for what they were longing for. For her, it is as same as walking in the path of her own choice and to conduct the task by her own will. d. Why does the speaker prefer the present to the past? The speaker prefers the present to the past because her history was terrible, painful, and troublesome. She suffered a lot in her past. Patriarchal ideology made her suffer a lot. She was limited by the male restrictions. She was the subject of play and laugh. She didn’t realize the liberation and emancipation by her heart. She was restricted to do things by her wish. She suffered from family domination, exploitation and starvation. But at the present, she feels liberated and free from male beliefs. Male ideology is declining day by day. Females have started realizing the fruits of liberation and strict male dominated beliefs have been declining in contemporary society. She feels herself completely free in her choices and decisions. She is permitted to work and visit of her own choice. Therefore, she prefers the contemporary society than the history

e John Donne, in his poem No Man is an Island, says, No man is an island entire of itself. Would Burgos agree with Donne? Do you agree with Donne or Burgos? 

John Donne, a prominent metaphysical poet, in his poem “No Man is an Island” says, “No Man is an island entire of itself. By this, he talks about the whole human race and its significance for the development of society. The phrase ‘no man is an island’ expresses the idea that human beings do badly when isolated from others and need to be part of a community in order to thrive. It means that no one is truly self-sufficient, everyone must rely on the company and comfort of others in order to thrive. I agree with John Donne and support his view of maintaining equality in society in the name of rights, freedom, justice, choices, opportunities and many more. He talks about the equality of males and females but on the other hand, Burgos seems to be furious and annoyed with the male-dominated society and therefore, she expresses her anger and rejection of male ideology and beliefs which restrict females’ liberations and opportunities in society. She seems a radical feminist who not only talks in favour of female emancipation but she also goes against male protocols and thoughts. Anyway, I support Donne as he favours the development of society as a whole with the promotions of both males and females in society.

Reference Beyond The Text 

Write an essay on My Idea of Freedom. 

My Idea of Freedom

Freedom, generally, means the ability to act or change without constraint. The world-famous scientist, Albert Einstein said, Freedom, in any case, is only possible by constantly struggling for it. I mean freedom as a state of independence where one can do what he/she likes without any restriction by anyone. Moreover, It can be called a state of mind where one has the right and freedom of doing what he/she can think of. Freedom is the availability of choice. It is something whenfone can choose whether he/she wants to do it or not. It is an innate right which humans have since their birth. It is not something that can be touched, seen, felt or reached. Different people have different opinions, definitions and thoughts about the idea of freedom. Some talk about freedom in a political sense, some talk about social freedom, some about personal independence and some define it as religious freedom. But the fact that everyone wants to be free, holds true in all cases. To wrap up, freedom is the choice to live one’s life doing what one wants, live where one wants, eat by own choice and learn what one’s heart desires. This means that freedom can apply to different aspects of life and freedom is not an absolute term. Freedom, what a wonderful word! The best road to progress is freedom’s road, said by John F. Kennedy.

Not all people, however, seem to agree with the kind of freedom upheld by Burgos in this poem. For example, William Faulkner, in his novel Requiem for a Nun, says, The past is never dead. It’s not even past. All of us labor in webs spun long before we were born, webs of heredity and environment, of desire and consequence, of history and eternity.” Do you agree with Faulkner? Why? Why not? 

Obviously, not all people, however, seem to agree with the kind of freedom upheld by Burgos in the poem I Was My Own Route.” William Faulkner, in his novel Requiem for a Nun, says, “The past is never dead. It’s not even past. All of us labor in webs spun long before we were born, webs of heredity and environment, of desire and consequence, of history and eternity. This quote or the best known line of Faulkner from “Requiem for a Nun “means that there is no present, it is always past. Think about it – when is “right now”? As soon as one says it, that moment is gone and all we have of that moment is a memory. In that sense, we are always living in the past : experiences forming memories and shaping our actions. Thus, the past will always exist because everything moves forward so it is constantly redefined. Whoever said it’s deadI think that certain moments are dead, but not the past. To move ahead, whatever we do and experience becomes history or the past.. The past will always be with us. We can’t say something happened if we’re still thinking about it and making choices based on it today. Our memories and actions are shaped by our past experiences. In Faulkner’s view, there is no such thing as the present; everything is constantly relying on the past. Julia Burgos is a radical feminist who fights for the freedom as she wants to transcend the male ideology or beliefs presents in the society. But as mentioned by Faulkner, for the sake of humanity and human life, we need survival of both male and female in the world. Thus, I agree with the view of Faulkner’s past. 

Reference to the context

What does the speaker mean when she says she was playing a game of hide and seek with her being?

= The third line of the first verse, “I was playing a game of hide and seek with my existence,” occurs twice throughout the poem. Speaker using these lines, was defying men’s expectations of what a woman should be since she was both contemporary and rebellious. These lines ‘a game of hide and seek with my existence’ convey the speaker’s desire to escape gender stereotypes and restrictions imposed by men. “To play hide and seek” is also an idiom that means that one party is always trying to avoid or evade the other.

Why, in your view, was her back ripped by the old guards as she was advancing forward?

= The old guard placed many threats on her as she hesitantly made her way forward. Patriarchal beliefs, or as she calls them “the old guard,” were impeding the progress of women’s personal freedom as a race. In the direction of women’s emancipation, she was breaking the bonds of patriarchal beliefs. The frantic flapping of the old guard’s wings pushed her back as she progressed. The speaker states, “My back was torn by the frantic flapping windsof the old guard with each advancing stride on my path ahead.” to express the hindrances and blockades created by men.

What, according to the speaker, did it feel like to be free?

= According to the speaker, being free feels like creating one’s own unique personality while free of the constraints placed on women by society. Being free was like receiving long-awaited freedom for her.

Why does the speaker prefer the present to the past?

= Because her history was so terrible, the speaker preferred the present. 

In the past, She was not the only one who suffered from starvation; one of her siblings also passed away. She had been subjected to masculine dominance and was one of the victims. She was surrounded by a patriarchal culture.  Her upbringing was shaped by her family’s history. 

But at the present, She feels more protected as the patriarchy is slowly on the verge of eradication. She’s paved the way for all the ladies out there who want to follow their own path and find their own sense of self-worth. She’s proud of herself, and she deserves to be recognised for it.  The present-day hero worshipers see her as a trailblazing woman who can save the female race from extinction. 

John Donne, in his poem No Man is an Island, says, No man is an island entire of itself. Would Burgos agree with Donne? Do you agree with Donne or Burgos?

= John Donne is a proponent of peaceful coexistence. “No man is an island ” is a famous poem written by him. No one is really self-sufficient, as stated in his poem. According to the poem, All life must be valued and respected. Each and every one of us is a component of the total. Humanity is made up of all humadors, no matter how different they may be. Because we are social creatures, we cannot exist in isolation. To survive and prosper, people need to depend on the companionship and support of others. 

I support John Donne for the notion of providing equal opportunities to both men and women and their co-existence. But, Julia De Bergos, completely dismisses the importance of male role models in helping shape women’s identities, in her poem “I was my own route”. Actually, her plan is unrealistic; it’s really simply an outlet for her anger towards men. 

Males and females are on an equal footing, and their coexistence helps to keep society in check. Burgos seeks to liberate women while avoiding the presence of males. She seems to be a radical feminist who believes in a fundamental reorganisation of society that eliminates male dominance in all social and economic settings.  Burgos is incorrect since it is stated that a man and a woman are two wheels of a cart. Breaking a wheel completely stops the cart from moving forward. Reading “I was My Own Route,” I came to this conclusion that John Donne opines a really practical notion. 

Reference Beyond The Text

Write an essay on My Idea of Freedom. 

My Idea of Freedom 

Our freedom is what enables us to live unrestricted lives free of restrictions and limitations. Freedom means raising our eyes to the stars and following the deepest aspirations of our wandering hearts. As Sir Rabindranath Tagore famously put it, “Freedom” exists when the mind is free of fear. Me, I have a specific idea of how freedom should be.

In order for me to feel free, my country must allow me to voice my views and allow genuine art to be heard without being branded as a censor. Freedom is when I’ll be able to take a month off from work and go on a bike ride across the Sunauli (India-Nepal Border) without any fear. When rape survivor no longer has to lie in shame throughout their days in society, they have achieved freedom. When I achieve freedom, I’ll be free to pursue my goals without hindrance. When I’m free, I’ll be able to express my preferences openly without worrying about being judged. With freedom comes the ability to stand up to the strong and prominent stupids who are to blame. To be free, I won’t have to look at my partner first when I approach another person to start a conversation. I’ll know I’ve achieved freedom when I can stroll around the streets of a larger city of Nepal at 11:00 PM without fear. When a homosexual guy is free from fear of being exposed to the harsh world, he has achieved true freedom.

 In conclusion, Freedom is more than simply a desire to be free of restrictions or obligations. In order to be free, you must be free to make your own decisions, whether little or large, such as what you want to eat or your professional path. It’s about forming your own opinions without being swayed by others. Freedom, in my opinion, is all about being able to think, analyze, and see the world for what it is. Assessing circumstances independently, without relying on others or delegating responsibility for choices is freedom. Being free means being who you really are, both physically and psychologically. 

Not all people, however, seem to agree with the kind of freedom upheld by Burgos in this poem. For example, William Faulkner, in his novel Requiem for a Nun, says, The past is never dead. It’s not even past. All of us labor in webs spun long before we were born, webs of heredity and environment, of desire and consequence, of history and eternity. Do you agree with Faulkner? Why? Why not?

= William Faulkner, in his novel Requiem for a Nun, says, The past is never dead. It’s not even past. All of us labor in webs spun long before we were born, webs of heredity and environment, of desire and consequence, of history and eternity”. To go ahead, everything we do and experience becomes history. In the webs we’ve been weaving from the beginning of time, we’re caught in the crossfire of history and karma that began before we were ever born. Time moves in a straight line, and so does our existence. The past will always be with us. We can’t say something happened if we’re still thinking about it and making choices based on it today. It doesn’t matter what happened, it all becomes a part of our history, but the memories they evoke live on in our brains, thus the past never really ends. It implies that we’re stuck in the past all the time. It will be with us till the end of time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Our memories and actions are shaped by our past experiences. In Faulkner’s view, there is no such thing as the present; everything is constantly relying on the past. Consciousness records all we see and hear. Everything that happened in the past is still there for the time being.

From the poem of Julia Burgos, we can infer that, because her history is so dreadful, she aspires to be completely free of it. It is, however, impossible to do so. The freedom that Julia de Bures fights for completely disproves the notion that there was a past too. She wants to transcend the presence of men in order to create her identity by denying the past and disapproving the existence of men. However, the world will come to a halt if men are avoided. The fact that she’s a radical feminist means that she’s outraged by the way men dominate women. For the sake of humanity’s survival, it is critical that both sexes be present. 

Our history forms our identity and assists us in every choice making. His view of the past is grounded in reality. We can not ignore it, as Burgos states in her poetry. After reading these two authors, I have to say that Faulkner was right.


THE AWAKENING AGE

 Ben Okri, a Nigerian poet and novelist, in his poem “The Awakening Age” projects the suffering obstacles and hardships of the African Negroes and appeals or calls for the peace, prosperity, happiness, liberation, unity and harmony among the people of the world. He wishes to awaken the whole world and its people from the world of darkness, and poverty to the awakening age of enlightenment The poem has seven stanzas and each stanza contains two lines. As the poem has altogether 14 lines, it looks like a sonnet. It opens with colloquial words like ‘Oye’. Then, he talks about the journey of the people who travel in the meridian line, and have a vision of the new world. Here, these ordinary travelers may see sufferings and hardships of the poor people and wish to awaken them into the world of freedom, emancipation, equality, and prosperity of the modern world. Then, the poet talks about optimistic people who are very much hopeful about the woven history of mankind where they can climb over the hill through a rope of hope to obtain a new height. This rope of hope leads people to the age of enlightenment. , empowerment, wisdom, equality and prosperity through hard work, creativity and hardships. They have a clear heart full of purity and whiteness. Through this finely composed poem with apt rhyming schemes depicts the issues of partiality, inequality, poverty, racial and colour discrimination and he hopes to see the voice of equality, freedom, feelings of brotherhood, justice, unity and harmony among the people of the whole world. He prefers to see a loving place of equality where people help each other with brotherly and sisterly feelings.

Summary of the Poem

In the poem, The Awakening Age, prolific poet and storyteller, Ben Okri, like in his other works, portrays the hardships of the African people. In addition, the poem makes a call for unity, peace and solidarity among human beings from different parts of the world.

Understanding the Text 

Who are the people ‘who travel the meridian line? 

Ans : – The poem interprets ” who travel the meridian line” to refer to Nigerians who have come together after Nigeria’s long civil war, which split the country into two halves: north and south. To put it another way, crossing a meridian line equates to going from one side of the Earth to the other. 

Ordinary travellers or researchers are the people ‘who travel the meridian line.’ 

What does the poet mean by ‘a new world? 

The poet by ‘a new world’ means the world of hope, prosperity, unity, truth, wisdom and creativity. 

How are people connected to each other? People are connected to each other with a sense of joy to achieve clearest light and unity. 

What can we gain after our perceptions are changed? 

We can gain unity, equality, prosperity and feelings of brotherly and sisterly after our perceptions are changed. 

How are we benefited by new people? 

We are benefited by new people as they support us in ascending a new height of hopeful path and receiving a flowering of truth. They also support us with their creative work, wisdom and creativity. f. 

Describe the rhyme scheme of this sonnet. 

The rhyme scheme of this sonnet is AABB CCDD EEFF GG. It is a Monorhyme-a poem in which every line uses the same rhyme scheme and a couplet: It contains two-line stanzas with the AA rhyme scheme, which often appears as AA BB CC and DD…” It provides rhythm and a beautiful musical tone to the poem.

Reference To The Context

What does the poet mean by ‘the awakening age”? 

The poet finds the African people in suffering and in many hardships. Therefore, he calls for peace, prosperity, happiness, liberation, unity and harmony among the people of the world. He wishes to awaken the whole world and its people from the world of darkness, and poverty to the awakening age of enlightenment 

Why, in your view, have these people lived with poverty’s rage’? 

In my view, these people have lived with poverty’s rage because they are tortured, suppressed and provided many hardships to accomplish for living in the community. They express such a rage to do much suppression over them.

Why does the poet appeal for solidarity among the people? 

The poet appeals for solidarity among the people so that they can be overcome from their hardships, obstacles and suffering. Unified force is essential for liberation and freedom of the people. The poet’s solidarity appeal develops the voice of equality, freedom, feelings of brotherhood, justice, unity and harmony among the people of the whole world. 

 

Does the poet present migration in a positive light? Why? Why not? 

In the poem The Awakening Age, the poet presents migration in a positive light in the sense that through migration they may have the vision of a new world within and they are richly linked in hope. They have positive insight and light through walking in the right track. Through this, they may awake in the age of unity, freedom, and prosperity and ascend to a new height.

Nepal is also known for its economic as well as educational migrants. Have you noticed any change in the perceptions and behaviours of these migrants when they return home from abroad? 

Nepal is also known for its economic as well as educational migrants. Yes, I have noticed some sorts of changes in the perceptions and behaviors of these migrants when they return home from abroad. They come with money and some technical or skilful knowledge. Educational migrants like Mahabir Pun have conducted several social works in remote areas and we have noticed many changes in the behaviors of people and in their business as they return from there.

Relate the rhyme scheme of this sonnet to the kind of life idealized by the poet. 

A rhyme scheme is the pattern of sounds that repeats at the end of a line or stanza. The rhyme scheme of this sonnet is AABB CCDD EEFF GG. It is a Monorhyme-a poem in which every line uses the same rhyme scheme and a couplet : It providesrhythm and beautiful musical tone to the poem Through this finely composed poem with apt rhyming schemes, it connects the issues of partiality, inequality, poverty, racial and colour discrimination and he hopes to see the voice of equality, freedom, feelings of brotherhood, justice, unity and harmony among the people of the whole world. Thus, by the help of the rhyme scheme, the poet hopes to see the idealized life of the people and wishes to awaken the world in the ideal world.

Reference Beyond The Text 

Write an essay on ‘The Impacts of Migration on Nepali Society : 

“The Impacts of Migration on Nepali Society’

Migration is often the result of a combination of push factors like conflict, poverty, disaster and pull factors like employment opportunities. An increasing number of people worldwide are migrating to improve or secure their livelihoods, and mountain regions play an important role in this trend. In Nepal, outmigration and its effects on livelihoods are key topics in the scientific and policy debates. Migration is increasing in the middle hills of Nepal, and it has diverse consequences for the people remaining behind, their livelihoods, and the way they manage their land. Migrants eventually induce social, economic, and political problems in receiving countries, including : increases in the population, with adverse effects on existing social institutions; increases in demand for goods and services; displacement of nationals from occupations in the countryside and in the cities; migrant populations have negative impacts on Air Quality Index (AQI); Impacts of migrant populations on urban environmental increase pollutant emissions. further increased the dependency on remittances; low level use of available natural resources including land cultivation; investment on unproductive sectors and so on. Above all, it has positive impacts as well. Migration helps in improving the quality of life of people. It helps to improve the social life of people as they learn about new cultures, customs, and languages which helps to improve brotherhood among people. Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region.

What does the poet mean by ‘a new world? 

Ans : – As said by the poet “a new world” denotes the unified Nigeria that emerged after the surrender of Biafra to the mainland of Nigeria which had previously declared its independence from the Nigerian mainstream government. A new world further means a place where peace and wealth reign after the arid terrain has been transformed into a lush farmland.

How are people connected to each other? 

Ans : – The hope of  making a wealthy country, led by the kind hearted and wise emperor, is what connects people to one another, according to the poem.

What can we gain after our perceptions are changed? 

Ans : – We can gain a great deal by changing our perspective. It is through our collective effort, knowledge, and creativity that we eliminate suffering and inequity by making use of the resources that are readily accessible.

How are we benefited by new people? 

Ans : – We can be benefitted by new people because of their open minded thoughts and innovative ideas. New people are above any sort of discriminations, rages, angers, and hatred to each other. Their innovative thoughts and creativity helps to awaken people from pains and sufferings. Such people are certain to make Nigeria a prosperous nation according to the poet.

Describe the rhyme scheme of this sonnet? 

Ans : – The Rhyme scheme used in this sonnet is “AA,” “BB,” “CC,” “DD,” “EE,” “FF,” and “GG.” There are fourteen lines in a sonnet, making it a formalized style of poem. Petrach, an Italian poet, was the first to use this form.


SOFT STORM

Abhi Subedi’s Soft Strom’ is depicted in free verse with a beautiful blend of natural and social description. On the surface level, it depicts the journey of the speaker through narrow lanes and lightning of Kathmandu city at night but in its deeper sense, it projects people’s indifference feelings towards miserable conditions and sufferings of the people, male practices, tumultuous atmosphere, and chaos in the Nepalese society.

In the opening stanza, the poet first portrays environmental disorder in the Nepalese society through words like tumult, eerie etc. and then he moves to the hopeful situation with the phrase “sky grew like crocuses’ indicating the blooming of Irish flowering family plants over stones.

These plants grow five inches taller. When the moon is about to pass away, he speaks the language of posters and politics and about several social activities. It means to state people’s discussion about social activities as they present in front of each other. By combining both natural and social atmosphere, he becomes soft again as he sees the softness of a rose like a gale’ from his roof.

Through this simile, he combines two opposite ideas the softness of the rose and strong wind and attacks the several social malpractices of the people in the society. Then, he presents the singing of the moon and lightning with the seamless city which means a city with easy and comfortable atmosphere for some people. 

In the second stanza, he presents homeless and parentless children in grim poverty and crying for food and shelter in Thamel. Through this, he attacks the corrupted political leaders who just think of themselves and their families, not of their poor citizens and orphans. These future pillars are in risk and in miserable conditions. Social evils prevailed in the country and is one of the major causes of all this. On the other hand, as he returns from such a melee (confusing place) where people were dancing with mad steps, parties and ceremonies in skyscrapers, big hotels, he recollects his past days when people were free to enjoy real spirit of freedom. larthe third stanza, he becomes soft hearted again as he visualizes a forlorn (sad and hopeless) child carrying a transistor around his neck is wailing and is searching for his mother here and there. The child is panicking. A man is beaten mercilessly before his family members for no specific reason. It states that in this modern era people are indifferent to each other and dominance is prevalent everywhere. These lawless activities make the speaker rebellious against the system.

In the fourth stanza, the poet talks about a man with a blood-stained shirt and bruised human lips who is unable to speak anything as his voice is locked by the powerful inhabitants in the nighttime. The game of hiding and seek is associated with the landowners and the workers. In the fifth stanza, he states about the words, not listening and storms but not waiting for its Leela or a divine play. 

In the sixth stanza, the poet states optimistic feelings for the inhabitants through grown-up Irish flowering plants over the stone, storms moving to the public places and the sun shining with its different colours like a rainbow. The other references like a soft storm, silent pages, forlorn shirts, celebrations for the gods etc are chaotic situations as they are under the control of disturbing rulers of the nation.

In the seventh stanza, he presents several causes of his soft heart such as invaluable things, indifference and selfish activities of the modern men, lawless activities, disturbed and spoiled mother earth due to human misbehaviours, and painful life of other poor creatures

In the last stanza, the speaker concludes the poem by stating that he needs freedom not only for himself but also for all the creatures of this mother earth. He favours the beautiful and calm sky and wants to dance freely without any social restrictions with the natural sweet music of soft storms and the melodious singing of the birds making a circle round and round.

Main Idea of the Poem

The main summary of the poem entitled Soft Storm, Subedi, is the feeling that is developed with a touch of compassion in the speaker, which contemplates the absurdities of tumultuous times.

Understanding the Text

When does the speaker grow soft? Enlist the occasions when he grows soft. 

The speaker grows soft on several occasions such as when he hears the tumult, the sky grows like crocuses, the moon skids down, homeless children cry due to hunger, a forlorn child cries and searches for his mother, a man beaten mercilessly and so on. 

What do you understand by ‘this seamless city’? 

By this seamless city’ means a city where inhabitants can walk freely without any social interruptions or problems and realize the real fruits of freedom and happiness beyond partiality. 

Describe the poor children portrayed in the poem. 

Poor homeless and parentless children cry due to hunger and poverty under the bat-bearing trees of Keshar Mahal in Thamel. They are deprived of their fundamental rights mentioned in the constitution.

What do you understand about the ‘unwedded gardens of history’? 

By ‘unwedded gardens of history’ means the past flourished incidences of the society which literally means lawless disturbed chaos situation created by social and political hegemony in the Nepalese society. 

Why was the forlorn child wailing? 

A forlorn child was wailing because he found his mother and other kins and dear ones missing in contemporary society. 

What do you understand about ‘soft storm’? 

The two opposite words ‘soft storm’ combined by Abhi Subedi’s title to his poem, means inner disturbed feelings of the poet du lawless society and chaotic environment. A storm simply means bad weather but connecting soft with it means a tumultuous atmosphere which the poet sees in contemporary society. 

Why does the speaker call our time ‘mad time’? 

The speaker calls our time ‘mad time’ in the sense it is not under the control of the constitution or the law of the nation. He finds corruption, partiality, political and social injustice among the people, animal laws in practice and degradation of nature everywhere in the society. 

What does the speaker want to do in “hard times”? 

The speaker wants to melt like a rainbow in ‘hard times’ because he is soft hearted by nature.

The poet uses the word ‘soft’ with the words like ‘storm’ and ‘gale’, which generally refer to disorder and violence. What effect does the poet achieve through the use of such anomalous expressions?

A sentence that is syntactically well-formed but semantically meaningless is called an anomalous expression. The best-known example in the poem is ‘soft storm’ and ‘softness rose like a gale ‘is inconsistent with what is usual, normal, or expected and is paradoxical in nature. Through this, the poet obtains psychological, social, political and environmental effects. He connects two opposite ideas to express his inner experiences that he feels and realizes in the contemporary suppressed society.

What is the speaker’s attitude towards the time he describes in the poem?

The poem has been set in the nighttime when the moon is shining in the sky which itself is shadowed or not as bright as the shining Sun. The speaker’s attitude towards time is not as good as he finds no particular work in particular times conducted by humans. Time itself is mad in the sense it is cylindrical in shape and moves in a round framework and is under the control of none. He finds hard times everywhere, where ng Auto expected things to take place. Thus, the speaker has no positive attitude toward the time in the poem.

What is the speaker like? Is he a rebel? Why? Why not? 

The speaker looks like a rebel. His situation is the same as the animals in ‘Animal Farm’ by D.H. Lawrence as they are waiting for an appropriate time to revolt and this nature of revolt is found in suppressed form. Social, familial political and environmental circumstances are responsible for him being so. As a rebel, he seems to challenge authority and break the rules every now and then but his rebellious nature is not presented in radical form rather it is presented in soft and suppressed form in the poem.

Explain the stanza below in your own words : 

I became soft when I saw a blood-stained shirt speaking in the earth’s ears with bruised human lips in the far corner under the moon of history and dreams playing hide and seek in open museums of human times. 

These given lines are from the fourth stanza of the poem ‘Soft Storm’ by Abhi Subedi where the poet talks about a man with a blood-stained shirt and bruised human lips who is unable to speak anything as his Auto is locked by the powerful inhabitants in the night time. The game of hiding and seek is associated with the landowners and the workers where the rights of the workers are under control of the landowner’s Miserable condition of the poor and marginalized ones is expressed through the given lines.

Write an essay, highlighting your dissatisfaction towards social, cultural, economic and political issues prevailing in Nepal at present. 

Social, Cultural, Economic and Political Issues Prevailing in Nepal

A large section of the population in Nepal cannot access political participation and representation in public affairs and obtain social and cultural equality due to economic and social conditions, social stigma and lack of access to information among other reasons.

Political Issues: I oppose this competitive multiparty democratic system of governance which is not stable by its nature and rule of law, human rights and fundamental rights mentioned in the constitution, only named independence and the free and fair judiciary as these things are only projected in the documents, not in the practical life of the people. The political leaders are just playing the game of dirty politics violating the rights of the people and the constitution

Social and Economic Issues: Old caste systems like Dalits are the most discriminated against people under this system who suffer from restrictions and economic opportunities in society. I totally disagree with this sort of social system in the country. There is widespread corruption everywhere and nepotism and favouritism are prevalent in society. Although the UN estimates that poverty in Nepal has been dropping gradually, a quarter of the population is still below the poverty line. 

Cultural Issues Auto-F Gender inequality, discrimination against women, girls trafficking, violence against women and many more are the obstacles of the current society I am not satisfied with. 

Suppose you are a rebel, who wants to change society by eliminating malpractices and anomalies prevailing in society. Draft a speech outlining your vision for change. 

Good morning everyone. 

Respected ladies and gentlemen and my dear friends,

I am Student and today we have gathered here against malpractices and anomalies being practiced in society and how they are becoming hurdles for our country’s development 

Some of the common social malpractices or social evils being practiced in our society are alcoholism, racism, child abuse, etc. Besides, Nepal is facing a large number of social problems such as caste system, child labor, child marriage, illiteracy, gender inequality, superstitions, religious conflicts and much more. Social evils are the issues opposed by most people of the society. In ancient days, our ancestors divided classes according to their people’s occupation like Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras Sudras are the most oppressed people. 

The other three castes don’t even touch them and they were not even allowed into the temples. These were the adverse effects. The second issue is child labour and child marriage. A child without education is a bird without wings. Without proper education, your child would face a lot of problems in this modern world. There is the right age to do everything. Make your children study until they are ready for work. Illiteracy is also one of the social issues. Educated people like us have to bring awareness to illiterate people. 

 Poverty is a significant problem to be solved as quickly as possible. The cause of poverty is illiteracy, caste system, and unemployment. The government should provide training for the unemployed. Sanitation and uncleanliness are also social evil. The reason is people’s carelessness and laziness. Every person must strive to make our country clean. Gender inequality and low status for women had become familiar. 

The reason for both of these evils is the narrow mindset of society. All these evils are interconnected. They stop most of our future citizens. To deal with these social evils, we have to get the right education with values. The government has to work more efficiently and try to eradicate these problems. To check all the issues, the first and foremost step should be to educate people. A lot needs to be done to eradicate the shreds of a number of social evils still haunting our society. 

In Albert Einstein’s words, “The world is a dangerous place to live, not because of the people who are evil but because of the people who don’t do anything about it.” With this, I conclude my speech. 

Thank you, everyone, and I wish you all the best and to succeed in your objectives of eradicating these social malpractices from society as soon as possible.

Reference Beyond The Text 

Write an essay, highlighting your dissatisfaction with social, cultural, economic and political issues prevailing in Nepal at present.

Suppose you are a rebel, who wants to change the society by eliminating malpractices and anomalies prevailing in the society. Draft a speech outlining your vision for change.

In the fifth stanza, the speaker expresses his dissatisfaction with the words not listened to and not waiting for the storm for its Leela (play).

The poet expresses positive feelings for the inhabitants in the sixth stanza by using grown-up Irish flowering plants over the stone, storms going to public places, and the sun shining with varied colours like a rainbow. Other metaphors, such as soft storm, silent pages, forlorn shirts, celebrations for the gods, and so on, are in a chaotic state since they are under the power of the nation’s disturbing rulers.

In the seventh stanza, he describes numerous causes of his soft heart, including invaluable items, modern men’s indifference and selfishness, criminal actions, a disturbed and spoiled mother earth as a result of human wrongdoing, and the terrible lives of other helpless creatures. The speaker closes the poem in the final line by emphasizing that he needs freedom not just for himself but also for all the creatures of this motherland. He prefers the lovely and peaceful sky and wishes to dance freely, free of social constraints, to the natural soothing melody of quiet storms and melodious birds singing, in a circle that goes round and round.


SOFT STORM

Soft Strom by Abhi Subedi is written in free verse with a lovely blend of natural and societal depiction. On the surface, it depicts the speaker’s journey through the narrow streets and lights of Kathmandu at night, but in a deeper sense, it projects people’s feelings of indifference towards the miserable conditions and sufferings of the people, male practices, tumultuous atmosphere, and chaos in Nepalese society. Subedi contemplates the absurdities of tumultuous times in the poem, “Soft Storm,” with a touch of compassion.

The poet describes an environmental disorder in Nepalese culture in the first stanza, using terms like a tumult, eerie, and so on, before moving on to a more positive condition with the phrase “sky grew like crocuses,” implying the blooming of Irish floral family plants over stones. These plants reach a height of five inches. 

When the moon is close to set, he speaks on posters and politics, as well as about a variety of social events. It refers to a group of people discussing social activities while they are in front of each other. As he views the gentleness of the rose like a gale from his roof, he becomes soft again by integrating both nature and the social atmosphere. 

He uses this simile to mix two opposing themes, such as the softness of a rose and the strength of a strong wind, and to criticize various social malpractices committed by people in society. Then he shows the moon singing and lightning with a seamless city, which for some people indicates a city with an easy and comfortable atmosphere.

In the second stanza, he depicts homeless and parentless children in Thamel, begging for food and shelter. Through this, he criticizes corrupted political leaders who are only concerned with themselves and their families, rather than their poor citizens and orphans. These future pillars are in jeopardy and living in deplorable conditions. One of the major causes of all of this is the prevalence of social evils in the country. On the other hand, as he returns from such a melee (confusing place) where people were dancing with mad steps, parties and ceremonies in skyscrapers, and big hotels, he recalls his past days when people were free to enjoy true freedom.

In the third stanza, he softens again as he imagines a forlorn (depressed and lonely) child sobbing and searching for his mother here and there while wearing a transistor around his neck. The child is terrified. For no apparent reason, a man is cruelly beaten in front of his family members. It states that in the present period, individuals are indifferent to one another and that dominance reigns supreme. These illegal behaviours cause the speaker to revolt against the system.

In the fourth stanza, the poet describes a man with a blood-stained shirt and bruised human lips who is unable to speak because the powerful residents of the night have silenced his voice. The landowners and the labourers are linked by the game of hide-and-seek.

Understanding The Text

Answer the following questions.

When does the speaker grow soft? Enlist the occasions when he grows soft.

➜ The speaker grows soft on various occasions. They are enlisted below:

After he heard the tumult

When the moon sang of lampposts and gutters in this seamless city

When homeless children in Thamel cried with hunger

When he returns from the melee

When he saw a forlorn child carrying a transistor radio around his neck

When he saw a blood-stained shirt and so on.

What do you understand by ‘this seamless city’?

➜ By ‘this seamless city’, I understand a city where residents can wander around freely, free of social disruptions or problems, and experience the true fruits of freedom and happiness, unbiased.

Describe the poor children portrayed in the poem.

➜ Under the bat-bearing trees of Kesharmahal in Thamel, poor homeless and parentless youngsters cry out in hunger and poverty. They are deprived of their constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights.

What do you understand by ‘the unwedded gardens of history?

➜ I understand the unaddressed incidents in the past, as well as the society’s ignored culture and traditions, which literally translates to a lawless, chaotic condition in Nepalese society caused by social and political hegemony.

Why was the forlorn child wailing?

➜ The forlorn child was wailing to find his mother in the corridors of violent history.

What do you understand by ‘soft storm’?

➜ I understand Abhi Subedi’s inner disturbing feelings as a result of a lawless society and chaotic atmosphere by ‘soft storm,’ the two words combined by Abhi Subedi to title his poem. A storm denotes bad weather, but when combined with the word “soft,” it signifies the chaotic times that the poet observes in today’s society.

Why does the speaker call our time ‘mad time’?

➜ Because our time in current society is not under the control of the constitution or the law of the nation, the speaker calls it “mad time.” Corruption, favouritism, sociopolitical unfairness among the people and environmental degradation are all prevalent in society, according to him.

What does the speaker want to do in “hard times”?

➜ In “hard times”, the speaker wants to melt like a rainbow.

Reference To The Context

The poet uses the word ‘soft’ with the words like ‘storm’ and ‘gale’, which generally refer to disorder and violence. What effect does the poet achieve through the use of such anomalous expressions?

➜ An anomalous expression is a syntactically well-formed but semantically meaningless expression. The expressions ‘soft storm’ and ‘softness rose like a gale’ in the poem are uncommon and paradoxical in nature. The poet produces a psychological effect using these terms. He can express his troubled inner experience by connecting two contradictory ideas.

What is the speaker’s attitude towards the time he describes in the poem?

➜ The speaker’s attitude toward time is not as positive, as he finds no specific work being done by humans at specific times. He thinks the time is messed up since he notices a lot of strange things going on around him. He is experiencing difficulties because society is in full disarray and out of control. As a result, the speaker in the poem has a negative attitude toward time.

What is the speaker like? Is he a rebel? Why? Why not?

➜ Yes, the speaker is like a rebel in the poem but his rebellious nature is not directly depicted in the poem. The poet finds the society in chaos, with people living in poverty, hunger, and corruption. He observes hungry homeless children crying. He sees people who are forgetting history and treating each other inhumanely. He appears to be a rebel, challenging everything.

Explain the stanza below in your own words:

I became soft

when I saw

a blood-stained shirt

speaking in the earth’s ears

with bruised human lips

in the far corner

under the moon

of history and dreams

playing hide and seek

in open museums

of human times.

➜ These lines are from the fourth stanza of Abhi Subedi’s poem “Soft Storm”. In the given lines, the poet expresses his discomfort when he observes a person in a bad condition late at night.

From these lines, the poet describes a man with a blood-stained shirt and bruised human lips who is unable to speak because the powerful residents of the night have silenced his voice. The moon of history and dreams, which refers to the history of human aspirations and accomplishments, is occasionally covered by clouds. When the moon rises, the moonlight falls on a culturally and historically significant location. The landowners and the labourers are linked by the game of hide-and-seek.

REFERENCE BEYOND THE TEXT

Write an essay, highlighting your dissatisfaction with social, cultural, economic and political issues prevailing in Nepal at present.

➜ Social, Cultural, Economic and Political issues prevailing in Nepal

Due to economic and social conditions, social stigma, and a lack of access to knowledge, a huge portion of Nepal’s population is unable to participate in political and public affairs, as well as gain social and cultural equality.

I oppose this competitive multiparty democratic system of governance, which is inherently unstable, and I oppose the rule of law, human rights, and fundamental rights mentioned in the constitution, which are only named independence and a free and fair judiciary because these things are only projected in documents, not in people’s everyday lives. Political leaders are simply engaging in dirty politics, infringing on people’s rights and the constitution.

Dalits are the most discriminated people under the old caste system, who face restrictions and limited economic prospects in society. I am completely opposed to the country’s current social system. There is widespread corruption, as well as nepotism and favouritism, throughout society. Even though the UN thinks that poverty in Nepal is rapidly decreasing, a quarter of the population remains impoverished. Gender inequality, discrimination against women, girl trafficking, violence against women, and many other issues plague today’s society, which I find objectionable.

Suppose you are a rebel, who wants to change society by eliminating malpractices and anomalies prevailing in society. Draft a speech outlining your vision for change.

➜ Respected gentlemen and ladies, as well as my beloved friends I’m Himal Poudel, and today we’ve joined to speak out against societal malpractices and anomalies, and how they’re obstructing our country’s growth. Alcoholism, racism, and child abuse are examples of prevalent social malpractices or social evils in contemporary society. Nepal also has plenty of other societal issues, including caste, child labour, child marriage, illiteracy, gender inequity, superstitions, religious disputes, and so on. The majority of people in society are opposed to social evils.

Our forefathers classified people into groups based on their occupations, such as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. Sudras are the most oppressed people. People from the other three castes are not allowed to contact them, and they are not even allowed into the temples. These were the negative consequences. Child labour and child marriage are the second issues. Without education, a child is like a bird without wings. Your child would have a lot of problems in today’s world if he or she didn’t have a good education. There is an appropriate age for everything. Make your kids study until they are ready to go to work. One of the socio-economic challenges is illiteracy. We, as educated individuals, must raise awareness among the ignorant.

Poverty is a serious issue that must be addressed as soon as possible. Poverty is caused by illiteracy, the caste system, and unemployment. Unemployed people should be given training by the government. Uncleanliness and sanitization are also social ills. People’s negligence and laziness are to blame. Every individual must work to keep our country clean. Women’s poor status and gender discrimination have grown commonplace. The restricted worldview of society is to blame for both of these problems. All of these evils are linked. They put a stop to the majority of our future people. To combat these social ills, we must obtain the proper education based on ethics.

The government must work more effectively to address these issues. To address all of the problems, the first and most important step should be to educate the public. There is still much to be done to rid our society of the remains of a variety of societal ills. As Albert Einstein Said, “The world is a dangerous place to live, not because of the people who are evil but because of the people who don’t do anything about it”. This brings my discourse to a close. Thank you all very much, and I wish you all the best in your efforts to eradicate these social malpractices from society as quickly as possible.

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