Discovering Migration: What Birds Reveal
Summary of the Text
Winter in a snow-covered forest is tranquil, but the arrival of spring brings with it the delightful sounds of returning birds. In the past, people held various theories about where these birds disappeared to during the winter, but the truth is that they migrate to distant destinations. Bird migration can be likened to the endurance of marathon runners, as they pace themselves to conserve energy.
In the spring, these avian travellers return to their summer homes after an incredible journey. Over five billion birds from North America embark on this migration in the fall, with more than 500 of the 650 North American bird species participating. This natural spectacle is not limited to North America, as globally, approximately 5,000 bird species partake in migrations.
Bird migration isn’t the sole example of this phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Many other species, including insects, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and mammals, undertake migrations. These journeys occur worldwide and throughout the year, making them a significant area of study. The study of bird migration contributes to our understanding of migration in general.
Migratory birds exhibit various strategies. Some migrate from east to west, while mountain birds adjust their elevation for milder conditions. Partial migration means that not all members of a species migrate, and some birds travel nonstop, while others make crucial stopovers for rest and refueling. Locations like the Platte River in Nebraska attract large crowds of migratory birds, such as Sandhill cranes.
Birds migrate at different times and use both day and night travel, with moon watchers counting them by observing their silhouettes against the moon during nighttime migration. The driving force behind migration is the changing seasons, as birds search for better conditions for breeding and food.
Birds have evolved remarkable navigation abilities, relying on visual cues, the Earth’s magnetic field, and even celestial objects for direction. Some, like the Arctic Tern, undertake astonishingly long migrations, covering thousands of miles between their breeding and wintering grounds.
However, migratory birds face challenges due to climate change and habitat loss, affecting their survival and migration timing. Conservation efforts are in place to safeguard critical stopover sites and breeding grounds for these birds. Birdwatchers and scientists play a pivotal role in tracking and studying migratory bird populations, as these birds serve as important indicators of ecosystem health and are vital for processes like pollination and seed dispersal.
Glossary of the Text
Meaning: High-pitched bird sounds, similar to tweets or trills.
Meaning: Rapid and continuous talking or noise, often resembling prattle or babble.
Meaning: Underwent a significant change or conversion, similar to being changed or converted.
Meaning: Extremely difficult to believe or amazing, akin to being unbelievable or amazing.
Meaning: A detailed plan or guide for a journey, similar to a plan or guide.
Meaning: Places where birds travel to, often referred to as locations or endpoints.
Meaning: The speed or rate at which something is done, akin to a stride or rhythm.
account-for /əˈkaʊnt fɔːr/
Meaning: Provide an explanation or justification for something, similar to explaining or justifying.
Meaning: Go back along a path that has been previously traveled, comparable to backtracking or revisiting.
Meaning: The season between summer and winter, also known as autumn or the time when temperatures descend.
Meaning: Cold-blooded vertebrate animals that live both on land and in water, such as frogs or salamanders.
Meaning: Cold-blooded vertebrate animals with scaly skin and laying hard-shelled eggs, including snakes or turtles.
Meaning: Large groups of insects or animals moving together, often referred to as groups or masses.
free-tailed /friː teɪld/
Meaning: Bats that have a long, slender tail that extends beyond the tail membrane.
fur seals /fɜr siːlz/
Meaning: Marine mammals with thick fur and external ear flaps, also known as sea lions.
Chinook salmon /tʃɪˈnʊk ˈsæmən/
Meaning: A type of salmon found in the Pacific Ocean and rivers of North America.
brindled-titmice /ˈbrɪndl̩d ˈtaɪtmɑɪs/
Meaning: Small birds with mottled or streaked plumage.
mountain-chickadees /ˈmaʊntən ˈtʃɪkəˌdiːz/
Meaning: Small birds found in mountainous regions.
Meaning: A temporary stay or break during a journey, similar to a layover or rest stop.
Meaning: A period of rest or waiting during a journey, akin to a stopover or rest period.
Meaning: Dangerous or risky, representing a state of danger.
A. Study the following word list and find their synonyms and antonyms as shown in the example. Write NA if the word does not have a synonym or antonym in the list.
|witness||onlooker, viewer, bystander, spectator||participant|
Synonyms: change, remodel, revamp
Antonyms: stagnate, hold on
Synonyms: unbelievable, amazing, wonderful
Antonyms: credible, plausible
Synonyms: guideline, plan, direction, protocol, procedure
Synonyms: backtrack, recall, recollect, reminisce
Synonyms: clutch, snatch, capture
Antonyms: free, liberate, release
Synonyms: height, altitude
Antonyms: flat, level, lowness
Synonyms: wet, sodden, soaked, drenched
Antonyms: dehydrated, dry, arid
Synonyms: refill, replenish, restock
Antonyms: deplete, exhaust
Synonyms: array, band, bunch, clump
Synonyms: vital, fundamental
Antonyms: trivial, insignificant, unimportant
Synonyms: risky, dangerous, precarious, terrifying
C. Complete sentences (a-f) with their correct endings (i-vii).
|a. In the past people had the misconception that||iv. birds hid underground or changed into some other birds.|
|b. To supply themselves with energy||ii. some birds stop to feed themselves with grains.|
|c. When the weather is favourable in spring||iii. birds fly back to their habitats.|
|d. As a sign of partial migration||i. some birds travel to a different place while others do not.|
|e. To wait for favourable weather||v. some birds choose to fly during the night.|
|f. For better flying conditions||vi. birds fly rapidly like marathon players.|
B. Answer these questions
a. What is incredible about the migration of birds?
|Answer: The incredible thing about bird migration is that they fly long distances without a roadmap or compass to reach their destinations.|
b. What things do birds consider while flying to their destinations?
|Answer: Birds consider factors such as changing winds, their own weight, and storms while flying to their destinations.|
|c. Which animals other than the birds migrate to new places?|
|Answer: Other animals that migrate to new places include insects, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and mammals.|
d. What do scoters dive underwater for?
|Answer: Scoters dive underwater to grab shellfish from the ocean floor.|
e. Which birds travel up and down instead of going north to south?
|Answer: Mountain birds, such as brindled-titmice and mountain-chickadees, travel up and down instead of going north to south.|
f. What is the partial migration of birds?
|Answer: Partial migration of birds refers to the phenomenon where some birds of a species migrate to different places while others do not.|
g. Why can sea terns not stay long in water?
|Answer: Sea terns cannot stay long in water because they become waterlogged, making it difficult for them to continue flying.|
h. How do birds feed themselves during their journeys?
|Answer: Birds feed themselves during their journeys by stopping at locations with food sources, such as clusters of bushes with berries, to rest and refuel.|
i. What are the signs of birds flying in the night sky?
|Answer: The signs of birds flying in the night sky include their chattering and visibility when passing in front of the moon.|
D. You might have seen or heard animals migrating to new places. What could be the reasons for animals to migrate?
When animals migrate, they go to new locations. They do this for many reasons. One of the most important reasons is to locate food. Animals seek for regions with plenty of food to ensure that they and their young have enough to eat. They also relocate to areas where they can have children and raise them safely. They may relocate to avoid terrible weather. They may discover better areas to live and survive by migrating. creatures also travel to avoid being eaten by other creatures. Overall, migration is an interesting strategy for animals to acquire food, make kids, and stay safe in a changing world.
A. Complete the sentences below with the correct alternatives from the brackets.
a. Even though we have different ideologies, we are intimate friends.
b. Despite our hard efforts, we could not establish a hospital in the village.
c. Even though the film was very popular, it was a commercial failure.
d. I enjoyed all the luxuries despite the fact that I grew up in a remote village.
e. I watched a late-night movie; however, I didn’t feel sleepy in the morning class.
f. Even though scientists have done lots of research, there is no evidence of life on Mars.
g. Despite my efforts, I can’t ever score excellent marks in the exam.
h. My room was burgled, although I had locked it securely before going out.
j. I called Siddhartha several times, but he did not respond.
k. Even though we had not invited them, they came to the party.
B. Join the following pairs of sentences with the connectives given in the brackets.
a. Although I was really exhausted, I could not sleep well.
b. In spite of not meeting the requirements, she was shortlisted for the job.
c. Even though the pay was quite low, I decided to work for the company.
d. Yet we lost the match, we had prepared for it really well.
e. Despite having badly injured her hand, Dipisha completed her assignment.
f. Kripa exercises every day, however, she is gaining weight.
g. Nevertheless Barcelona won the match, they were limited to ten players.
h. I love to watch cricket on TV, while my brother loves to watch football.
i. In spite of not having gone to bed until midnight, he woke up early in the morning.
j. Although he had not played well, he was selected for the school team.
A large number of youths and professionals leave Nepal and migrate abroad each year. Write an essay expressing your opinion about the impacts of such migration. Also include suggestions and solutions to the problems caused by migration.
One of the most significant consequences of migration is brain drain, which happens when highly educated and competent people leave Nepal to seek opportunities abroad. This flight deprives the country of significant human capital and knowledge, stifling the country’s overall growth and advancement. The loss of these bright individuals has an especially negative impact on industries such as healthcare, education, and technology.
The economic impact of migration on Nepal is another consequence. Remittances returned home by migrant workers contribute greatly to the country’s economy, relieving poverty and increasing household incomes. A significant dependence on remittances, on the other hand, might provide long-term issues, such as a loss in home production and growing reliance on foreign economies. To lessen its vulnerability to variations in remittance flows, Nepal must diversify its economy and invest in local sectors.
The departure of young and brilliant people might have a negative societal impact. The loss of a robust and productive workforce can result in a demographic imbalance that has an impact on family structures, social dynamics, and community cohesiveness. Furthermore, family separation due to migration can have emotional and psychological consequences, particularly for children and elderly parents who are left behind.
To reduce the drain of talent, Nepal must develop an environment that offers appealing possibilities. This includes encouraging a favorable business climate, assisting startups, and investing in critical industries to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation, and job development. It is critical to strengthen the school system and vocational training programs in order to provide the young with the essential skills and knowledge.
Finally, youth and professional mobility have important effects for Nepal, including brain drain, economic ramifications, and social consequences. To address these issues, Nepal must prioritize talent retention, economic diversification, and support mechanisms for impacted families. By tackling these concerns, Nepal will be able to maximize the benefits of migration while reducing its negative consequences, therefore contributing to the country’s long-term development.