Best Guide to Trademark Registration in Nepal

Discover the intricacies of trademark registration in Nepal through this comprehensive guide. Uncover the step-by-step process, from submission to publication, and the significance of symbols like ™, ℠, and ®. Delve into required documentation, grounds for refusal, and the vital aspect of renewal. Gain insights into how the Patent, Design, and Trademark Act of 1965 governs this process under the Department of Industry. Explore the protection of your intellectual property and ensure your brand's distinctiveness in Nepal's commercial landscape.

Introduction to Trademark Registration

Trademark Registration refers to the legal process by which a distinctive symbol, design, word, phrase, logo, image, or combination thereof, used to identify and distinguish goods or services offered by a business or individual, is officially recognized and protected by a government authority. This recognition grants the trademark owner exclusive rights to use the trademark in connection with their products or services, preventing others from using a similar mark that might cause confusion among consumers.

The process involves submitting an application to a relevant governmental agency, such as a trademark office, detailing the nature of the trademark and its association with specific goods or services. After examination and approval, a registered trademark provides the owner with legal protection, allowing them to take legal action against any unauthorized use or infringement.

A trademark, in its essence, serves as a powerful identifier that distinguishes the goods and services of one entity from those of others. It encapsulates a wide spectrum of elements, ranging from names, words, phrases, logos, symbols, designs, and images, to combinations thereof. This visual representation not only represents a company’s identity but also establishes a unique association in the minds of consumers.

While traditional trademarks are well-recognized, Nepal also acknowledges non-conventional trademarks, such as those based on color, smell, or sound. The process of registering and safeguarding trademarks in Nepal is meticulously governed by the Patent, Design, and Trademark Act of 1965 (PDTA), which falls under the purview of the Department of Industry (DoI) operating under the Ministry of Industry.

Understanding Trademarks:

A trademark assumes multifaceted roles within the commercial landscape. It is a distinctive emblem that enables consumers to recognize and associate a product or service with its origin. This recognition fosters consumer trust, loyalty, and brand loyalty. The spectrum of trademarks is exemplified through various symbols:

  • ™: This signifies an unregistered trademark, intended for the branding of goods.
  • ℠: This symbolizes an unregistered service mark, serving the purpose of branding services.
  • ®: This emblem denotes a registered trademark, symbolizing its legal protection.

Trademark Registration Process in Nepal

Embarking on the journey of trademark registration in Nepal entails traversing several meticulously outlined steps, each playing a crucial role in safeguarding the intellectual property rights of individuals and enterprises.

Step 1: Submission of Application to the DoI

The cornerstone of the trademark registration process begins with the submission of a meticulously crafted application to the Department of Industry (DoI). This application adheres to a prescribed format and is accompanied by an array of requisite documents. This documentation encompasses not only the primary details of the applicant but also the comprehensive description of the trademark that is seeking registration.

Step 2: Preliminary Examination by the DoI

Once the application finds its way into the corridors of the DoI, it undergoes a rigorous preliminary examination. During this stage, the registrar scrutinizes the application for its distinctiveness, the potential for causing confusion or deception in the market, and any conflicts with existing trademarks. This examination serves as a crucial filter to ensure that the trademarks that proceed through the system are truly unique and deserving of legal protection. Based on the examination, the registrar reserves the authority to accept or refuse the application in accordance with the provisions of the PDTA.

Step 3: Publication in the IP Bulletin

Should the application successfully pass the scrutiny of the preliminary examination, the trademark embarks on a new journey of publication. This publication occurs in the Industrial Property Bulletin (IP Bulletin), and it serves as an open invitation to the public. The purpose of this publication is twofold: to ensure transparency and to provide a platform for potential opposition against the registration of the trademark. This window for opposition spans a period of 90 days, during which interested parties can voice their concerns or objections.

Step 4: Registration of the Trademark

Should the trademark emerge unscathed from the opposition phase, it is granted the prestigious status of being registered. The DoI bestows the mark with legal recognition, and a trademark registration certificate is issued as a testament to this achievement. The culmination of this process marks the official recognition of the trademark’s distinctiveness and its alignment with legal norms.

Required Documents for Trademark Application

The pursuit of trademark registration demands the assembly of an ensemble of documents, each contributing to the comprehensive presentation of the trademark and its owner’s credentials. These essential documents are as follows:

  • Application in the Prescribed Format: The bedrock of the application process is the submission of an application in a format prescribed by the DoI. This format encapsulates crucial details about the applicant and the trademark-seeking registration.
  • Certificate of Registration for the Trademark Owner: This certificate substantiates the ownership of the trademark by the applicant. It serves as a testament to the applicant’s rightful claim over the mark.
  • Tax Registration Certificate of the Owner: The possession of a tax registration certificate reflects the applicant’s compliance with fiscal regulations. This certificate substantiates the legal standing of the applicant.
  • Label of the Trademark: The visual representation of the trademark, encapsulated in the label, forms a pivotal element of the application. This depiction provides an intricate insight into the design, symbol, or word that is being trademarked.
  • Power of Attorney (POA): This document stands as tangible proof of the authorization granted by the applicant to an individual or entity to act on their behalf during the registration process. This step is particularly relevant when an applicant chooses to entrust a representative to navigate the intricacies of registration.

Grounds for Refusal of Trademark Application

Trademark registration is not an unconditional right; it is subject to a battery of parameters and considerations. Section 18(1) of the PDTA outlines the grounds upon which an application for a trademark can be rejected. These grounds include:

  • Damage to Reputation: The application can be refused if the trademark is deemed to cause damage to the reputation of any individual or institution.
  • Contradiction with Public Conduct/Morale or National Interest: Trademarks that run afoul of public conduct, moral standards, or national interest can be rejected on these grounds.
  • Harm to Goodwill: If the trademark’s usage is likely to undermine the goodwill associated with an existing trademark, it may be rejected.
  • Prior Registration: If the trademark in question has already been registered under the name of another individual or entity, the application may be declined.

These stipulated grounds serve as a safeguard, ensuring that trademarks that receive legal protection do not compromise societal norms, values, or the rights of others.

Validity and Renewal of Registered Trademark

The concept of validity and renewal forms an integral facet of trademark registration, particularly in Nepal. Section 18D of the PDTA stipulates that a registered trademark retains its validity for a period of seven years from the date of its registration. This temporal framework underscores the notion that the protection granted to a trademark is not perpetual but finite, necessitating the proactive engagement of the trademark owner to ensure its continued safeguarding.

Section 23B(1) of the PDTA mandates the renewal of the trademark within the span of 35 days before its expiry. This renewal is an essential step in maintaining the trademark’s legal standing and its role as a distinctive identifier. Recognizing the nuances of practical life, Section 23B(2) offers a window of opportunity for trademark owners who may have missed the initial renewal timeline. This provision enables the renewal of a trademark by submitting a penalty payment of Rs 1,000 within six months of the expiry of the 35-day period. This mechanism reflects a balance between adherence to deadlines and the provision of flexibility for inadvertent delays.

The consequence of not adhering to these renewal timelines is noteworthy. Failure to renew within the stipulated timeframes results in the automatic cancellation of the trademark’s registration. This outcome underlines the significance of staying attuned to renewal deadlines and acting proactively to ensure the uninterrupted legal protection of the trademark.


The journey of trademark registration in Nepal is a structured and intricate process, a testimony to the nation’s commitment to safeguarding intellectual property rights. The PDTA and the DoI play pivotal roles in meticulously guiding this process, ensuring that trademarks are bestowed with legal recognition while adhering to stringent criteria. The comprehensive steps, ranging from submission and preliminary examination to publication and final registration, embody a commitment to fostering innovation, creativity, and distinctiveness within Nepal’s commercial landscape.

Trademark registration is not merely a bureaucratic exercise; it is a testament to an entity’s commitment to its identity, values, and offerings. This process underscores the symbiotic relationship between businesses and consumers, where the trademark acts as a bridge connecting the two. The journey to a registered trademark is marked by diligence, adherence to legal norms, and a shared understanding of the pivotal role trademarks play in the world of commerce.

The foundation laid during the registration process serves as a robust shield, protecting not only the distinctiveness of a trademark but also the integrity of the business it represents. In the tapestry of Nepal’s intellectual property landscape, trademark registration emerges as a cornerstone, weaving together legal frameworks, innovation, and economic growth.

Key Takeaways From the Article

Registering a trademark in Nepal is usually not too complicated. People called trademark examiners check if your trademark is okay based on certain criteria. It takes time, about 1 to 3 years, and if you make mistakes, you might have to start over. This can impact your business in a fast-moving economy. To help you succeed, it’s smart to work with a trademark attorney. There are symbols you can use with your trademark: ™ for unregistered and ® for registered.

Here’s how to register your trademark step by step in Nepal:

  • Fill out a form and give papers to the Department of Industry. Pay Rs. 1000.
  • The Department of Industry checks if your trademark is special. They might say yes or no.
  • If they’re okay with it, they put it in a book. People can complain within 90 days.
  • If no one complains, the Department of Industry registers your trademark. You pay Rs. 5000. The certificate is good for 7 years.

You have to renew your trademark every 7 years. If you forget, you can still renew it but with a penalty.

Trademark Classes: When you register, say which class your brand falls into. For example:

  • Class 1: Chemicals for industry, farming.
  • Class 2: Paints, colors.
  • Class 3: Soaps, perfumes, cleaning stuff.
  • And so on…

It takes time to register a trademark, about 12 to 36 months in Nepal. Selling a trademark in Nepal is possible. It’s like selling something you made. The new owner must be written down and registered, and they have to use the trademark properly. The trademark’s value depends on factors like what it’s for and how well-known it is.